Sex and Race/Ethnicity Differences in Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Counseling and Use Among Patients Hospitalized With Heart FailureClinical Perspective
Findings from the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program
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Background: Previous studies have found that women and black patients eligible for a primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are less likely than men or white patients to receive one.
Methods: We performed an observational analysis of the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program from January 1, 2011, to March 21, 2014. Patients admitted with heart failure and an ejection fraction ≤35% without an ICD were included. Rates of ICD counseling among eligible patients and ICD receipt among counseled patients were examined by sex and race/ethnicity.
Results: Among 21 059 patients from 236 sites, 4755 (22.6%) received predischarge ICD counseling. Women were counseled less frequently than men (19.3% versus 24.6%, P<0.001, adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78–0.91). Racial and ethnic minorities were less likely to receive counseling than white patients (black 22.6%, Hispanic 18.6%, other race/ethnic group 14.4% versus white 24.3%, P<0.001 for each): adjusted OR versus white, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.76 for black patients; adjusted OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.70 for Hispanic patients; adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.65 for other patients. Among the 4755 counseled patients, 2977 (62.6%) received an ICD or had one planned for placement after hospital stay. Among those counseled, women and men were similarly likely to receive an ICD (adjusted OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.99–1.29). However, black (adjusted OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.56–0.88) and Hispanic patients (adjusted OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46–1.01) were less likely to receive an ICD.
Conclusions: Up to 4 of 5 hospitalized patients with heart failure eligible for ICD counseling did not receive it, particularly women and minority patients. Among counseled patients, ICD use differences by race and ethnicity persisted.
- Received December 18, 2015.
- Accepted June 15, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.