Genotype-Dependent and -Independent Calcium Signaling Dysregulation in Human Hypertrophic CardiomyopathyClinical Perspective
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Background: Aberrant calcium signaling may contribute to arrhythmias and adverse remodeling in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Mutations in sarcomere genes may distinctly alter calcium handling pathways.
Methods: We analyzed gene expression, protein levels, and functional assays for calcium regulatory pathways in human HCM surgical samples with (n=25) and without (n=10) sarcomere mutations compared with control hearts (n=8).
Results: Gene expression and protein levels for calsequestrin, L-type calcium channel, sodium-calcium exchanger, phospholamban, calcineurin, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMKII) were similar in HCM samples compared with controls. CaMKII protein abundance was increased only in sarcomere-mutation HCM (P<0.001). The CaMKII target pT17-phospholamban was 5.5-fold increased only in sarcomere-mutation HCM (P=0.01), as was autophosphorylated CaMKII (P<0.01), suggestive of constitutive activation. Calcineurin (PPP3CB) mRNA was not increased, nor was RCAN1 mRNA level, indicating a lack of calcineurin activation. Furthermore, myocyte enhancer factor 2 and nuclear factor of activated T cell transcription factor activity was not increased in HCM, suggesting that calcineurin pathway activation is not an upstream cause of increased CAMKII protein abundance or activation. SERCA2A mRNA transcript levels were reduced in HCM regardless of genotype, as was sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticular calcium ATPase 2/phospholamban protein ratio (45% reduced; P=0.03). 45Ca sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticular calcium ATPaseuptake assay showed reduced uptake velocity in HCM regardless of genotype (P=0.01). The cardiac ryanodine receptor was not altered in transcript, protein, or phosphorylated (pS2808, pS2814) protein abundance, and [3H]ryanodine binding was not different in HCM, consistent with no major modification of the ryanodine receptor.
Conclusions: Human HCM demonstrates calcium mishandling through both genotype-specific and common pathways. Posttranslational activation of the CaMKII pathway is specific to sarcomere mutation–positive HCM, whereas sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticular calcium ATPase 2 abundance and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca uptake are depressed in both sarcomere mutation–positive and –negative HCM.
- calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 2
- cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic
- sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-transporting ATPases
- Received October 26, 2015.
- Accepted August 5, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.