Abstract P314: Sleep Quality and High-fat vs High-vegetable Diet: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Relationships
Introduction: Sleep and diet are closely-related aspects of lifestyle health. Several studies have examined relationships between sleep and diet. However, longitudinal relationships are largely unknown. The present study examined whether sleep predicted changes in diet.
Methods: Data from the Kansas State Employee Wellness Program from 2008 (N=5,634) and 2009 (N=3,286) were used. Sleep quality was assessed categorized as “Never,” “Seldom,” “Sometimes,” “Often,” or “Always.” Change scores were computed and classified as “Same,” “Better” or “Worse.” Habitual diet was classified as high fat and high vegetable. For both dietary variables, change scores were computed and categorized as no change, no to yes, or yes to no. Binary logistic regressions examined whether sleep quality (reference=”Never”) was associated with high fat or vegetable diets. Multinomial logistic regressions examined whether sleep quality at baseline and change in sleep quality (Better or Worse vs Same) was associated with change in diet. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, race/ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI).
Results: At baseline, 50.01% of the sample had a high-fat diet, and 48.79% had a high-vegetable diet; notably, 39.98% of those with high fat diets also had high vegetable diets. Overall, poor sleep quality at baseline was associated with an increased likelihood of high-fat diet and decreased likelihood of high-vegetable diet (see Table). Sleep disturbance at baseline was not associated with change in diet, except that sleep disturbance “Always” was associated with an increased likelihood of losing a high-vegetable diet (OR=1.85, 95%CI [1.12,3.05], p=0.016). If sleep quality improved, gaining a high vegetable diet was more likely (OR=1.49, 95%CI [1.07,2.05], p=0.017).
Conclusions: Poor sleep was associated with poor dietary behaviors. Further, both poor baseline sleep and worsening sleep over time predicted worsening of dietary behaviors. Sleep may therefore play a causal role in dietary change.
Author Disclosures: M.A. Grandner: None. S. Hui: None.
- © 2016 by American Heart Association, Inc.