Abstract P156: Dietary Patterns and Incident Hypertension in Mexican Women
Introduction: A dietary pattern characterized by a combination of a traditional maize-based diet and street-food with sodas, showcasing the nutritional transition in Mexico, may be differentially associated with hypertension.
Hypothesis: Dietary patterns reflecting overall diet are associated with incident hypertension.
Methods: We investigated the relation between dietary patterns and the incidence of self-reported hypertension in 62,440 women from the Mexican Teachers’ Cohort (MTC) who were free of hypertension at baseline in 2008 when diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Between baseline and 2011 we identified 2874 incident cases of hypertension. We identified 3 major energy-adjusted dietary factors using factor analysis in a self-reported FFQ. The first factor loaded heavily on fruits and vegetables; the second factor on processed meats, fast foods, and red meat; and the third factor on corn tortillas, chili, sodas, legumes, and street-food. Factors were named Fruits & Vegetables, Western, and Modern Mexican, respectively. Dietary patterns were categorized into quintiles and logistic regression models were fit. Age and multivariable odds ratios with the lowest category as a reference were estimated; we adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, insurance, education, region, menopause, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, activity, and energy intake.
Results: The multivariable-adjusted odds of hypertension in the highest quintile of the Fruit & Vegetable pattern were 18% lower than the odds for individuals in the lowest quintile (95%CI=0.74-0.91;P-trend<0.0001). Comparing extreme quintiles, the Western pattern was associated with a 17% increase in hypertension (95%CI=1.05-1.31;P-trend=0.001); and the Modern Mexican pattern with a 21% increase (95%CI=1.08-1.34;P-trend<0.0001).
Conclusion: The dietary patterns derived from the MTC’s FFQ are associated with hypertension. Exploring them may generate new hypotheses on dietary factors associated with hypertension.
Author Disclosures: A. Monge: None. R. Lopez-Ridaura: None. J.J. Gongora: None. M. Lajous: None.
- © 2016 by American Heart Association, Inc.