Abstract P148: Median American Intake of Fructose Does Not Increase Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors
Introduction: Studies in animals have shown that fructose can promote weight gain and the development of associated metabolic diseases when consumed in very high doses. The applicability of these findings to human consumption is unclear because they do not represent how fructose is consumed in the human diet, which is virtually always in combination with glucose and at much lower levels.
Methods: 156 subjects were studied. All were apparently healthy and weight stable (no change in weight greater than 3% over the past three months) at enrollment (M=69, F=87, mean age 35.7 ± 11.4). Participants were randomly assigned to one of five groups - four that contained low fat milk with added sugar and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. Milk was consumed in amounts so that the added sugar contributed a target percentage of the calories required for weight maintenance. The groups were as follows: Fructose 9% (50th percentile of fructose consumption in the US), Glucose 9%, High fructose corn syrup 18%, sucrose 18% and an unsweetened milk control consumed so milk contributed 18% of the weight-maintenance calories. The energy intake required for weight maintenance was estimated using the Miflin St Joer equation and using an appropriate activity factor determined by responses to a physical activity questionnaire. The intervention lasted ten weeks.
Results: There was a small change in weight (162.0 ± 28.5 vs 163.8 ± 29.3 lbs), BMI (26.0 ± 3.5 vs 26.3 ± 3.7) and waist circumference (81.0 ± 10.1 vs 81.6 ± 10.4 cm) in the entire study population (p<0.01), but no effect of group (interaction p>0.05). In contrast there were no changes (p>0.05) in blood pressure (SBP: 106.7 ± 9.7 vs 105.5 ± 10.1, DBP: 68.7 ± 7.9 vs 68.6 ± 7.6 mmHg), cholesterol 178.3 ± 34.9 vs 179.4 ± 35.4 mg/dl), triglycerides (105.5 ± 79.9 vs 106.3 ± 76.3 mg/dl), LDL (104.4 ± 29.2 vs 105.7 ± 28.7 mg/dl), or glucose (88.9 ± 6.9 vs 90.4 ± 9.5 mg/dl). Although there was a statistically small decrease in HDL (54.2 ± 15.6 vs 52.8 ± 13.3 mg/dl, p<0.05), it was not clinically important. In all cases, the treatment group did not affect the response (p>0.05).
Conclusion: These data suggest that the majority factors are unaffected by the consumption of the U.S. population average intake of fructose, whether consumed as fructose or as other types of sugar.
Author Disclosures: J. Lowndes: None. S. Sinnett: None. J.M. Rippe: B. Research Grant; Modest; Corn Refiners Association, The Coca Cola Company.
- © 2016 by American Heart Association, Inc.