Abstract P048: Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Oxidative Stress in the Kidneys of Type2 Diabetic Rats
Objective: Aerobic exercise is known to have multiple beneficial effects including renal protection in type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. However, the mechanisms regulating these actions of aerobic exercise remain unclear. The present study evaluated the effects of chronic aerobic exercise on early stage of diabetic nephropathy focusing on renal oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO), using Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats as an animal model of obese type 2 diabetes.
Methods: Male ZDF rats (6 weeks old) underwent forced treadmill exercise for 8 weeks (Ex-ZDF). Sedentary ZDF (Sed-ZDF) and Zucker lean (Sed-ZL) rats served as controls. After the last exercise session, all rats were subjected to an intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test.
Result: Exercise ameliorated hyperglycemia with increased insulin secretion, and raised the values of homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA-β) in ZDF rats. Exercise also reduced albumin excretion and normalized creatinine clearance in ZDF rats. Endothelial (e) and neuronal (n) NO synthase (NOS) protein expression, and NOS activity in the kidneys of Sed-ZDF rats were lower compared with Sed-ZL rats, while both NOS expression and NOS activity were upregulated by exercise in ZDF rats. Although there was no significant difference in plasma levels of adiponectin between the groups, plasma levels of leptin were significantly higher in the Ex-ZDF group compared with the Sed-ZL and Sed-ZDF groups. Exercise decreased plasma and urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) as an index of lipid peroxidation in ZDF rats. Additionally, renal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity and expression of p47phox protein were significantly higher in the kidneys of the Sed-ZDF group compared with the Sed-ZL group, and there was no significant difference between the Ex-ZDF and Sed-ZL groups. Immunoblots for Nox4, Nox2, namely gp91phox and p22phox protein were undetected in the kidneys of the Sed-ZDF and Ex-ZDF group as well as the Sed-ZL group. In addition, expression of nitrotyrosine as an index of peroxynitrite (ONOO–) formation was significantly lower in the kidneys of the Sed-ZDF group compared with the Sed-ZL group, and was significantly higher in the Ex-ZDF group compared with the Sed-ZDF group. Further, morphometric evidence of renal damage was alleviated in response to exercise.
Conclusion: Upregulated NOS activity and NOS protein, and ameliorated NADPH oxidase activity and p47phox protein in the kidneys may be potential mechanisms by which chronic aerobic exercise can reduced early diabetic nephropathy in ZDF rats. Chronic aerobic exercise does have beneficial effects and may be a novel therapeutic approach for preventing the development of renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.
Author Disclosures: D. Ito: None. P. Cao: None. T. Kakihana: None. E. Sato: None. Y. Muroya: None. Y. Ogawa: None. G. Hu: None. T. Ishii: None. O. Ito: None. M. Kohzuki: None. H. Kiyomoto: None.
- © 2016 by American Heart Association, Inc.