Abstract 19760: Longitudinal Changes in Cardiac Structure and Function After Creation of Dialysis Access in People With End Stage Kidney Disease: A 15 Year Experience
Introduction: Arteriovenous fistulas(AVF) have been associated with high output heart failure but little is known about their effect on patients initiating hemodialysis. We sought to describe echocardiographic changes and identify those with incident heart failure after AVF creation.
Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing AVF creation over a 15 year period from 2000-2014 at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Patients undergoing echocardiogram <3 months (median 40 days) before AVF creation and >6 months (median 2.5 years) following surgery were included. Patients with independent modifiers of LV structural changes (such as revascularization or myocardial infarction) were excluded by chart review. Clinical heart failure was defined by Framingham criteria.
Results: From 2000-2014, 2236 patients underwent creation of AVFs and 137 patients met inclusion criteria. There was a longitudinal decrease in systolic function as evident by a drop in ejection fraction(-2%, p=0.047) with decrease in s’ tissue Doppler velocity(-0.6 cm/s, p=0.055) and increase in HR(+5 beats/min, p=0.003). There was also an increase in the prevalence of RV dilation(20 to 40%, p=0.002) and RV dysfunction(12 to 29%, p=0.002). With initiation of dialysis and decrease in weight (-7.3kg) and estimated plasma volume (-303ml) (both p<0.0001), there was a decrease in LV end diastolic dimension (-2mm, p=0.006). Despite better volume control, left atrial volume index increased (+5ml/m2, p=0.004). On multivariate Cox regression, worsening RV dilation [HR 1.8 (1.06-3.09),p=0.03] was independently associated with mortality. Incident heart failure developed in 43%(28/65) with no pre-existing HF, of whom 75% had HFPEF and 25% HFrEF. The development of new systolic HF (but not HFPEF) was associated with increased age and sex adjusted mortality [HR 3.0(1.0-7.9), p=0.045].
Conclusions: AVF creation is associated with worsening biventricular function and left atrial and RV dilatation, despite reduction in LV size. These changes are coupled with high incidence of new, unexplained heart failure. Further research is needed to identify the hemodynamic mechanisms underlying heart failure development in patients with ESRD requiring dialysis access.
Author Disclosures: Y.N. Reddy: None. P.G. Dean: None. K.A. Nath: None. B.L. Karon: None. B.A. Borlaug: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.