Abstract 19644: Dietary Sodium, Potassium Levels and Sodium Potassium Ratios in India Using 24-hour Urinary Excretion Assessment
Introduction: Hypertension is a major public health burden in India and most hypertensives are inadequately treated and controlled. Thus, population based sodium reduction strategies are essential for hypertension control. However, contemporary data on sodium consumption, which are essential to implement effective sodium reduction strategies are lacking.
Objective: To assess the dietary sodium, potassium intakes and sodium potassium ratios using 24 hour urinary samples among a representative sample of adults aged ≥ 20years in urban and rural India.
Methods: We conducted a population based cross sectional survey among 1397 adults aged ≥ 20 years residing in urban Delhi and rural Haryana, India. Subjects were selected using a systematic random sampling technique (multi stage cluster random sampling in urban area and simple random sampling in rural area). Data were obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire, anthropometry and a 24-hour urine collection.
Results: In the urban area, the mean age of the participants was 45 years (SD=14.4) and half of them were women while in the rural area it was 46 years (SD=15.3) and 60% were women. Mean sodium intake as assessed by 24 hour urinary sodium excretion was higher in rural [3798 mg/day (SD=2106)] compared to the urban area [2421 mg/day (SD=1743)]. Mean potassium intake was low in both rural [1607 mg/day (SD=826)] and urban areas [1144 (SD=755)], and the overall sodium potassium ratio was high (2.4).Men had higher sodium intake and sodium potassium ratio.
Conclusion: Sodium intake in this sample is high and exceeds the current World Health Organization (WHO) recommended levels while potassium intake is low. Sodium reduction efforts combined with policies to increase potassium intake should be initiated in India to prevent and control hypertension as well as to contribute to the proposed United Nations WHO targets for reducing chronic non-communicable diseases by 2025.
Author Disclosures: S. Mohan: None. R. Shivashankar: None. S. Khandelwal: None. S. Anand: None. D. Kondal: None. A. Krishnan: None. R. Amarchand: None. N. Poulter: None. K. Reddy: None. D. Prabhakaran: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.