Abstract 19422: Origin of Ventricular Fibrillation in Bileaflet Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome
Introduction: Although most patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) have a benign prognosis, there is a subgroup with bileaflet MVP syndrome (biMVPS) at increased risk of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (VF). The phenotypic features of this syndrome include myxomatous bileaflet prolapse, complex ventricular ectopy (VE), T-wave inversion in inferolateral ECG leads, and female predominance. The mechanism of ventricular arrhythmia in these patients is unknown.
Methods: We reviewed our center’s ablation experience of 14 consecutive patients with biMVPS patients between February 2007 and October 2013 (n=13 female, median [range] age at index ablation 33.8 [21.0 - 58.7] years, left ventricular ejection fraction [EF] 60 [45-67] %, all ≤ moderate mitral regurgitation [MR]). We compared findings from 6 with prior sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and recurrent ICD shocks for drug refractory VF with 8 who had symptomatic drug-refractory complex VE but without prior SCA.
Results: All patients with prior SCA had a predominant VE trigger for the VF. There was no difference between the two groups in EF, MR severity, VE burden, and number of different VE morphologies or foci ablated. Sites of successful VE ablation at index procedure were the LV papillary muscles (PM, n=6 anterior, 6 posterior), fascicular system (n=5 anterior, 4 posterior), mitral annulus (n=2), outflow tracts (3 RVOT, 1 LVOT), and coronary sinus (n=1). All patients had at least one LV papillary or fascicular VE focus. Purkinje origin VE was identified as the VF trigger in 6/6 SCA patients (3 from PM, 3 from LV fascicles) and only 4/8 (none from PM) non-SCA patients (p=0.04). Acute success was seen in 17/19 procedures with no complications. VF storm occurred within 24 hours of ablation in a single patient. At 310 (39 - 2099) days follow-up, 1 SCA patient received a single shock (p=0.031 compared to pre-ablation), and symptoms from VE were reduced in 12/14.
Conclusions: BiMVPS is characterized by VE from the LV fascicles and papillary muscles that trigger VF. The VE is invariably multifocal and may also involve the outflow tracts and mitral annulus. Ablation of clinically dominant VE foci alleviates symptoms and reduces the number of VF-terminating ICD shocks.
- Bileaflet mitral valve prolapse
- Ventricular arrhythmia
- Sudden cardiac death
- Triggered ventricular fibrillation
- Catheter ablation
Author Disclosures: F.F. Syed: None. M. Ackerman: Consultant/Advisory Board; Modest; Boston Scientific, Gilead Sciences, Medtronic, St. Jude Medical. Research Grant; Significant; National Institutes of Health. Other; Significant; Transgenomic. C.J. McLeod: None. S. Kapa: None. S.K. Mulpuru: None. C.S. Sriram: None. B.C. Cannon: Consultant/Advisory Board; Modest; Medtronic and St. Jude Medical. S.J. Asirvatham: Consultant/Advisory Board; Modest; Sanofi Aventis, Stereotaxis, Inc.. P.A. Noseworthy: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.