Abstract 18708: Vascular Dysfunction in Hyperhomocysteinemia: In vitro Evidence for Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-mediated Calcium-activated Potassium Channel Dysfunction
Objectives: KCa channels play an important role in the control of vascular tone. Opening of IKCa and SKCa in endothelial cells underlies the classic EDHF pathway and promotes NO production. Smooth muscle BKCa provides a negative feedback mechanism opposing vasoconstriction and is an effector of NO and EDHF. Previous studies demonstrated homocysteine (Hcy), a risk factor for atherosclerosis, compromises NO and EDHF function, however, whether KCa is involved is poorly studied and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We studied the effect of Hcy on vascular KCa with the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress explored.
Methods: In vitro studies were performed in porcine coronary arteries and primary cultured porcine coronary endothelial (PCECs) and smooth muscle cells (PCSMCs). IKCa and SKCa-, and BKCa-mediated relaxations were studied in endothelium-intact and -denuded arteries in a myograph. IKCa and SKCa currents in PCECs and BKCa current in PCSMCs were analyzed by whole-cell patch clamp and channel expressions were examined by western blot.
Results: Hcy impairs the role of IKCa and SKCa, and BKCa in vasorelaxation. Relaxant responses to channel activators NS309 and NS1619 were attenuated and EDHF-type response was inhibited. Hcy suppressed IKCa and SKCa currents in PCECs and BKCa currents in PCSMCs. Inhibition of ER stress enhanced KCa currents and improved EDHF-type and channel activators-induced responses. Whole-cell protein levels of IKCa and SKCa remained unchanged in Hcy-exposed PCECs whereas IKCa and SKCa at cell surface were significantly decreased. Hcy lowered protein of β1 but not α subunit of BKCa in PCSMCs. The decrease in cell surface IKCa and SKCa and reduction of BKCa β1 were restored by ER stress inhibition. Further, inhibition of PERK increased BKCa β1 protein and enhanced BKCa current.
Conclusion: ER stress mediates Hcy-induced vascular dysfunction through inhibition of KCa. Suppression of cell surface expression underlies ER stress-mediated IKCa and SKCa inhibition. Downregulation of BKCa β1 by PERK-ER stress pathway plays a key role in the loss of BKCa function. This study provides new mechanistic insights into the role of ER stress in vascular dysfunction.
Supported by RGC GRF CUHK4774/12M & CUHK14118414, and NSFC 81200123.
Author Disclosures: W. Sun: None. X. Wang: None. C. Yu: None. S. Pun: None. Q. Yang: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.