Abstract 18492: Phase Analysis Detects Human Atrial Fibrillation Sources While Classical Activation Mapping May Not: Reconciling Classical and Computational Mapping
Introduction: The mechanisms maintaining human persistent AF are elusive. It is striking how most optical mapping studies in animal and recently human AF show rotors and focal sources, while most classical activation mapping studies of electrograms do not. We tested the hypothesis that sites in human persistent AF showing rotors by phase analysis may, due to precession (‘wobble’) and fibrillatory collision, rarely reveal sources in activation maps.
Methods: We studied 25 patients with persistent AF (LA 47 mm, CHADS2=1.9), in whom phase-mapping of electrograms from 64 pole baskets revealed rotors/focal sources where ablation terminated AF. Electrograms (fig A) were annotated (Matlab) using minimum dV/dt (unipoles, fig B) and peak amplitude criteria (bipoles) to create contours (isochrones), that were classified into a) complete, b) partial or c) unresolvable sources.
Results: In each case, ablation at phase-identified rotors/sources (4.0±5.7 mins) terminated persistent AF to sinus rhythm (fig C, 64%) or atrial tachycardia. Notably, isochrones detected sources in only 5/25 (20%) of cases (fig D), more easily in unipolar than bipolar signals. Isochrones revealed partial sources in 11 (44%) and were unresolvable in 9 (36%). Source detection in classical maps was obscured by low signal: noise, varying sequence (rotor precession), or electrode noise that phase analysis resolved by analyzing neighboring sites (fig E). The figure summarizes these steps for a case with perfect agreement between activation and phase maps.
Conclusions: Rotors and focal sources for human persistent AF detected by phase analysis were mostly undetected in activation maps, due to rotor precession and fibrillatory conduction. These data may inform approaches to revise classical criteria to better map AF.
Author Disclosures: J.A. Zaman: None. G.G. Lalani: None. T. Baykaner: None. S. Park: None. D.E. Krummen: Consultant/Advisory Board; Modest; Topera. P.J. Wang: None. S.M. Narayan: Research Grant; Significant; NIH. Honoraria; Modest; Medtronic, St Jude, Biotronik, Boston Scientific. Consultant/Advisory Board; Significant; Abbott.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.