Abstract 18066: What Empowers Trained Bystanders to Initiate and Perform Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation?
Introduction: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has been implemented widely across communities but little is known about what empowers trained bystanders to initiate and perform CPR. We sought to identify which factors that empower bystanders to initiate and perform CPR.
Methods: From January 2012-April 2015, we conducted 128 semi-structured qualitative telephone interviews with bystanders to consecutive out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in Denmark. Purposive maximum variation sampling was used to select interviews and capture a wide range of perspectives using the following characteristics: (1) diverse demographics, (2) location of OHCA, (3) type of initial contact with OHCA, (4) resuscitation attempt alone or with others. Interviews were included until data saturation was reached. We used NVIVO software (QSR International Pty Ltd, Doncaster, VIC) to conduct in-depth qualitative thematic analysis. According to these methods, a small size is common because study validity is based upon the information richness of the selected participants rather than reaching a representative sample.
Results: Bystander characteristics are shown in Table 1. Among bystanders previously trained in CPR, the following were described as empowering to initiate and perform CPR: (1) knowledge that intervention cannot cause harm and is decisive to improve survival, (2) the ability to work with other bystanders, (3) bystander leadership skills, (5) use of a ventilation mask and (6) use of an AED.
Conclusions: Trained bystanders were empowered by: knowing the intervention could not cause harm and was decisive to improve survival; their leadership skills and ability to work with others; using a ventilation mask and an AED. Promoting these conditions through CPR courses, emergency dispatcher instructions as well as access to ventilation masks and AEDs is likely to increase bystander CPR rates. Implementing compression-only CPR may increase bystander CPR rates.
Author Disclosures: C. Malta Hansen: Research Grant; Significant; Laerdal Foundation, TrygFonden, Helsefonden. S.M. Rosenkranz: None. F. Folke: None. L. Zinckernagel: None. T. Tjørnhøj-Thomsen: None. C. Torp-Pedersen: Research Grant; Significant; Bristol-Myers Squibb. Consultant/Advisory Board; Significant; Cardiome, Merck, Sanofi, and Daiichi. K.B. Søndergaard: Research Grant; Significant; TrygFonden. G. Nichol: Research Grant; Significant; Silver Spring, MD; Cardiac Science Corp, Waukesha, WI; Heartsine Technologies Inc., Newtown, PA; Philips Healthcare Inc., Bothell, WA; Physio-Control Inc., Redmond, WA; ZOLL Inc., Chelmsford, MA. M.H. Rod: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.