Abstract 17334: The Detrimental Effect of Chest Compression Interruptions on Coronary Perfusion Pressure Dynamics
Introduction: Guidelines for treatment of cardiac arrest recommend minimizing interruptions in chest compressions based on research indicating that interruptions compromise coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and blood flow and reducing the likelihood of successful defibrillation. We investigated the dynamics of CPP before, during, and after compression interruptions and how they change over time.
Methods: CPR was performed on domestic swine (~30 Kg) using standard physiological monitoring. Blood flow was measured in the abdominal aorta (AAo), the inferior vena cava, the right common carotid and external jugular. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was electrically induced. Mechanical chest compressions (CC) were started after four minutes of VF. CC were delivered at a rate of 100 compressions per minute (cpm) and at a depth of 2” for a total of 12 min. CPP was calculated as the difference between aortic and right atrial pressure at end-diastole per Utstein guidelines. CPP was determined for 5 compressions prior to the interruption, every 2 seconds during the CC interruption, and for 7 compressions after the interruption. Per protocol, 12 interruptions occurred at randomized time points.
Results: Across 12 minutes of CPR, averaged CPP prior to interruption was significantly greater than the averaged CPP after the interruption (22.4±1.0 vs. 15.5±0.73 mmHg). As CPR continued throughout the 12 minutes, CPP during compressions decreased (First 6 min = 24.1±1.4 vs. Last 6 min = 20.1±1.3 mmHg, p=0.05), but the effect of interruptions remained constant resulting in a 20% drop in CPP for every 2 seconds irrespective of the prior CPP. The increase (slope) of CPP after resumption of compressions was significantly reduced over time (First 6 min = 1.47±0.18 vs. Last 6 min = 0.82±0.13 mmHg/compression).
Conclusions: Chest compression interruptions have a detrimental effect on coronary perfusion and blood flow. The magnitude of this effect increases over time as a resuscitation effort continues. These data confirm the importance of providing uninterrupted CPR particularly in long duration resuscitations.
Author Disclosures: N.A. Paradis: Employment; Significant; Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center. Research Grant; Modest; NIH Funding; SBIR RMD. Research Grant; Significant; Sponsored research agreement with ZOLL Medical Corp. Other Research Support; Modest; BG Medicine, Venaxis. Ownership Interest; Significant; Intellectual property in resuscitation devices. K.L. Moodie: Employment; Significant; Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center. Research Grant; Significant; Sponsored research agreement with ZOLL medical. C.L. Kaufman: Employment; Significant; ZOLL Medical Corp. J.W. Lampe: Employment; Significant; University of Pennsylvania. Research Grant; Significant; Sponsored research agreement with ZOLL Medical Corp. Other Research Support; Significant; NIH funding in resuscitation. Ownership Interest; Significant; Intellectual property in resuscitation devices.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.