Abstract 16853: Dietary Improvements and the Preventable Cost of Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence From the Literature
Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk has been linked to dietary components in many studies, but the associated reduction in CVD healthcare costs with dietary improvements has not been systematically evaluated.
Hypothesis: CVD healthcare cost savings associated with an improvement in dietary metrics are substantial.
Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and ABI/Inform to identify population-based studies published between January 1990 and December 2014 on CVD healthcare costs related to a dietary component. The selected dietary components, in accordance with those identified by the American Heart Association in their 2010 Strategic Impact goals, included salt/sodium, sugar-sweetened beverages, fruits and vegetables, fish/omega-3 fatty acids, whole grains/fiber. Other selected dietary components, based on AHA’s secondary dietary metrics, were nuts, processed meat and saturated fat. For each dietary component, we evaluated the CVD healthcare cost savings if the current consumption level were to be changed.
Results: In 329 articles obtained, 15 studies evaluated the healthcare costs associated with one or more of dietary components: salt/sodium (n=12); fruit and vegetables (n=1); meat (n=1); saturated fat (n=3). The majority of studies (n=11) used an incidence-based approach, and the remaining were prevalence-based analyses. Adjusting the costs to 2013 US dollar values using consumer price index and purchasing power parity exchange rate, reducing average sodium intake by 1.2 g/day could save $1794 per person per year in the United Kingdom. Reducing individual sodium intake to 2.3 g/day could save $1955 per person in the United States. Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables from <0.5 cup / day to more than 1.5 cups / day could save $1481 per person in the United States.
Conclusions: In conclusion, reducing sodium intake and increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables could substantially reduce CVD costs. Few studies were available on the cost savings associated with dietary components for cardiovascular health. These results suggest a need for economic studies using high-quality cost information and the most recent evidence to predict long-term cost savings.
Author Disclosures: D. Zhang: None. M.E. Cogswell: None. G. Wang: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.