Abstract 15240: Cholesterol Crystal Embolization: The Incidence as a Cardiac Procedural Complication and the Comparison of the Outcomes Between its Causes
Background: Cholesterol crystal embolization (CCE) is very rare, but has a poor prognosis and no proven therapy. Although CCE occurs from various causes, the incidence and outcomes of CCE remain unclear.
Purpose: 1) to investigate the incidence of CCE as a complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), and cardiovascular surgery; and 2) to investigate patient characteristics and outcomes of CCE on the basis of its causes: idiopathic CCE, catheter-related CCE, and cardiovascular surgery-related CCE.
Methods: We registered 75 patients having CCE in the medical records between May 2004 and April 2014 and compared their patient characteristics and outcomes according to the causes of CCE: idiopathic CCE, 31 patients (41%); catheter-related CCE, 32 (43%); and cardiovascular surgery-related CCE, 12 (16%). CCE was diagnosed by clinical findings (blue toe syndrome or livedo) or laboratory findings (elevated serum creatinine level, eosinophil count, or skin biopsy).
Results: The incidences of catheter-related CCE were 0.7% in PTA on arteriosclerotic obliterans and 0.17% in PCI. The incidence of CCE after PCI was significantly higher in patients treated with femoral approach than in those treated with nonfemoral approach (0.32% vs. 0.01%, p<0.001). The incidences of cardiovascular surgery-related CCE were relatively high in endovascular aortic repair (1.3%) and in abdominal aortic replacement (0.6%).
In the comparison of patient characteristics between idiopathic CCE, catheter-related CCE, and cardiovascular surgery-related CCE, there were significant differences in age and aortic aneurysm. Of the 75 patients, 24 (32%) died, 10 (13%) initiated dialysis, and 7 (9%) underwent leg or toe amputation. There was no significant difference in the outcomes of CCE depending on its causes.
Conclusion: The incidences of CCE were significantly high in transfemoral procedures and in surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Between the causes of CCE, there were significant differences in patient characteristics, but no significant differences in the outcomes.
Author Disclosures: A. Misao: None. K. Kadota: None. D. Hasegawa: None. S. Habara: None. T. Tada: None. H. Tanaka: None. Y. Fuku: None. T. Goto: None. K. Mitsudo: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.