Abstract 15067: Incidence and Outcomes of Neonates With Congenital Heart Disease Complicated by Necrotizing Enterocolitis
Introduction: The management of neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD) may be complicated by necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), however, there is limited multicenter data describing the incidence and outcomes of NEC in the CHD population.
Objective: We aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors for the development of NEC in neonates with major CHD and the impact on survival.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study of neonates with CHD was performed for all index hospitalizations of neonates (<28 days) with major CHD between 2004 and 2014 using the Pediatric Health Information System database. The diagnosis of NEC was determined by the presence of ICD-9 code 777.5x. The incidence of NEC was determined as were risk factors for the development of NEC. Mortality was the primary outcome measure.
Results: Of 38770 neonates with major CHD, 1448 (3.6%) were diagnosed with NEC. The rate of NEC varied between 0-8% by hospital and was not associated with hospital volume (p=0.4). Among neonates with a single, major CHD diagnosis, the rate of NEC was 6% in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), 6% in truncus arteriosus (TA) , 4% in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), 3% in aortic arch obstruction (AO), and 2% in transposition of the great arteries (TGA); these diagnoses accounted for 47% of all NEC. Prematurity and chromosomal anomalies were independently associated with the diagnosis of NEC (p≤0.01 for both). Unadjusted mortality among neonates with NEC was 24% compared to 12% in neonates without NEC (OR 2.4, 95%CI 2.1-2.7). When evaluating changes in adjusted mortality associated with NEC by CHD diagnosis, TOF mortality increased from 8% to 16% (p<.01), TGA increased from 5% to 21% (p<0.01), AO increased from 6% to 20% (p<0.01), HLHS increased from 22% to 28% (p=.07), and TA decreased from 13% to 12% (p=0.7). Median LOS was higher in neonates with NEC than without NEC (54d [IQR 31-93] vs. 18d [IQR 9-34], p<0.01) as was median hospital charge ($600k [IQR 310k-1.1m] vs. $220k [IQR 100k-430k], p<0.01).
Conclusions: The incidence of NEC among neonates with major CHD is highest in HLHS and TA. NEC is associated with significantly higher hospital mortality, LOS, and charges. Determining modifiable factors associated with NEC may allow for interventions to reduce morbidity in this population.
Author Disclosures: P. Shamszad: None. S.A. Morris: None. D. Nandi: None. A.T. Costarino: None. B.S. Marino: None. J.W. Rossano: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.