Abstract 12216: Age-Related Macular Degeneration as a Predictor of Incidence and Progression of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiovascular Outcomes: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
Introduction: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss in US adults and shares many similarities with CVD pathophysiology.
Hypothesis: We assessed the hypothesis that the presence of AMD would independently predict the incidence and progression of subclinical CVD and CVD events in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Methods: Our cohort consisted of 5,803 adults free of known CVD who had retinal photographs taken during the first follow-up examination of the MESA (Exam 2; Aug 2002-Jan 2004). Photographs were evaluated for AMD using the Wisconsin age-related maculopathy grading system. Coronary artery calcium (CAC), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), ankle brachial index (ABI), and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were assessed at baseline (Exam 1; July 2000-Aug 2002). Changes in CAC and cIMT from Exam 1 were determined at follow-up Exam 5 (April 2010-Dec 2011). Incident CVD events were ascertained from 2002 through 2012.
Results: Participants were categorized as AMD+ (n = 244) or AMD- (n = 5,559). Groups did not differ at baseline for cIMT, ABI, or FMD (P>0.19). At Exam 5, 92 AMD+ and 2684 AMD- participants had CAC scores. In those with CAC = 0 at baseline, CAC incidence did not differ between AMD+ (n = 21) and AMD- groups (n = 761). In those with CAC>0, CAC progression was greater in the 46 AMD+ vs. the 1170 AMD- participants after a mean follow-up of 10.4 ± 2.4 years using multivariable-adjusted models (530 ± 537 vs. 339 ± 426 Agatston units, P = 0.004). Ten year cIMT progression (P = 0.85) and incident CVD events (multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) = 1.3 (0.9, 1.8); P = 0.20) did not differ between groups.
Conclusions: In conclusion, the presence of AMD in a diverse population without known CVD was independently associated with higher 10-year CAC progression in participants with baseline CAC>0. AMD was not associated with CAC incidence, other subclinical CVD markers or CVD events. The association between AMD and CAC progression suggests that AMD is associated with a greater degree of atherosclerosis. Longer follow up of individuals with AMD is warranted to clarify whether greater CAC progression increases risk of CVD events.
Author Disclosures: A.B. Fernandez: None. K.D. Ballard: None. M. Guo: None. T.Y. Wong: None. R. Klein: None. P.D. Thompson: Research Grant; Modest; NIH, Sanolfi, Regeneron, Esperion, Amarin, Pfizer. Honoraria; Modest; Merck, AstraZeneca. Consultant/Advisory Board; Modest; Amgen, Regeneron, Merck, Genomas, Sanolfi, Esperion, Amarin. M. Cotch: None. R.L. McClelland: None. B. Klein: None. M.A. Allison: None. G.L. Burke: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.