Abstract 12059: Incidental Findings in Cardiomyopathy and Channelopathy Genes Among 5891 Individuals Undergoing Whole-exome Sequencing. What Should be Reported?
Background: Whole-exome-sequencing (WES) is becoming a common molecular diagnostic test for patients with genetic disorders. However, this technique allows the identification not only of mutations responsible for the disease under investigation, but also of variants potentially causing other diseases, the so called “incidental findings” (IFs).
The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) stated that IFs should be reported based on clinical validity and utility and indicated a list of 56 actionable genes. Among these, nearly half (20/56) are major genes associated with channelopathies and cardiomyopathies. Despite these recommendations, most of the studies so far published, reported also mutations in minor genes among the actionable findings.
Methods: WES was performed in 5891 individuals without known channelopathies or cardiomyopathies. Exome data were first filtered based on genotype quality. Subsequently, a frequency filter was applied, considering 1000 Genomes, ExAC and our internal exome database. Variants reported as pathogenic in ClinVar or novel but expected to be pathogenic (nonsense, frameshift and splice) were further investigated, following the ACMG guidelines. Major (20) and minor (73) genes associated with channelopathies and cardiomyopathies were evaluated.
Results: We identified 3514 variants in the 93 genes under investigation, after applying the quality and frequency filters. Eight variants were classified as pathogenic and 52 as likely pathogenic and they were detected in around 1% of the individuals. The vast majority (85%) of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were located in the 20 actionable genes indicated by ACMG. The inclusion of minor genes increased the number of variants of unknown significance (VUS), from 865 to 3454.
Conclusion: Our data support the ACMG recommendations in reporting only IFs identified in the 20 major cardiac actionable genes. Indeed, the inclusion of minor genes is mainly increasing the number of VUS, without significantly impacting the number of pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants. The percentage of individuals with potentially clinical relevant variants in these genes is too high in relation to the disease-prevalence: a cardiologic evaluation is warranted.
Author Disclosures: E. Mastantuono: None. T. Wieland: None. R. Berutti: None. P. Lichtner: None. T. Strom: None. T. Meitinger: None. L. Crotti: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.