Abstract P207: Incidence of Hypertension in Colombia Similar to That Observed Decades Ago in Developed Countries: An Observation From the Chicamocha Cohort Study
Background: Overweight is a modifiable risk factor for high blood pressure (BP). Despite the increasing prevalence of both conditions in the Latin American population, there are no estimates of either the incidence of hypertension or the impact of overweight on it that inform the design and evaluation of individual and community-based preventive interventions in the region.
Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study in a sample of normotensive, blood donors from Bucaramanga, Colombia, who were free of transfusion-transmitted infectious and cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Participants were re-evaluated after a median follow-up of 12 years to determine the incidence of hypertension defined as: 1) Self-reported diagnosis with evidence of pharmacological treatment; 2) Systolic BP >140 mmHg or diastolic BP >90 mmHg (average of two measures in seated position); or 3) Current systolic/diastolic BP >120/80 mmHg with evidence of increments >10/5 mmHg from baseline. We estimated crude incidence rates of hypertension and age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for baseline overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) using Cox regression analysis. The population attributable fraction (PAF) for overweight was also assessed.
Results: We followed 594 participants (baseline mean age = 38.0 years; 64% male; adherence rate = 78%) at risk of hypertension among which we observed 164 incident cases: Cumulative incidence of 27.6%; incidence rate of 23.4 cases per 1,000 person-years. Incidence rate was similar in men and women (23.4 vs. 23.2 per 1,000 person-years; p>0.05) and tended to increase with age (17.4, 21.2, and 27.8 per 1,000 person-years among participants <30, 30-39, and ≥40 years old, respectively; p>0.05). Participants with overweight at baseline had twice the risk of developing hypertension than participants with normal weight (adjusted-HR = 2.00, 95%CI: 1.11, 3.61). The estimated PAF was 25.7%, considering a national prevalence of overweight equal to 34.6%.
Conclusion: The incidence of hypertension in our study is similar to that reported two decades ago in cohorts from developed countries, which is consisting with the ongoing epidemiological transition in Latin America. We also confirmed the role of overweight as a risk factor for hypertension, accounting for about 1 out 4 incident cases. This finding highlights the importance of addressing overweight in our population.
Author Disclosures: J.C. Villar: None. L.X. Martínez: None. Y.Z. Castellanos: None. S.M. Vásquez: None. V.M. Herrera: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.