Abstract P136: Childhood BMI Associated With Low HDL-c Levels in Adolescence in a Chilean Cohort
Background: Global prevalence of childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated body mass index (BMI) leads to a cascade of negative health outcomes including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes, thus increasing risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Some studies have documented an association between early childhood obesity and CVD risk factors. To date, studies have been primarily cross sectional and in European descent populations. Thus, the relationship between childhood obesity and later CVD risk is inadequately understood. To increase our understanding of this complex relationship, this study aims to assess the association between 5-year BMI and HDL-c levels at 17 years in a Chilean longitudinal cohort study.
Methods: We used longitudinal data from the Santiago Longitudinal Cohort study. Participants were enrolled as infants between 1991 and 1996. As such, they have experienced Chile’s rapid modernization and dramatic changes in diet, activity, and environment. At 5 years, height and weight were measured to 0.1 kg using a SECA scale and 0.1 cm using a Holtain stadiometer. BMI (kg/m2) was calculated and converted to z-scores (WHO Standards). HDL-C was measured following standard protocols and classified as low if HDL-c ≤ 40 mg/dL. We implemented a logistic regression to assess the association between BMI z-scores at age five and clinically defined low HDL-c levels at age 17. Covariates in the model included sex, gestational age, maternal education, household social status, and maternal age at birth.
Results: The total sample included 677 children who had weight measurements at age five and subsequent cardiovascular testing at age 17. Descriptive statistics include: 47% female, mean 5-year BMI percentile was 72.5 ± 25.2, mean 17-year HDL-c was 40.2 ± 10.6, and 53% (n=359) in the low HDL-c group. Mean 5-year BMI percentile was higher in the low HDL-c group than the high HDL-c group (75.2 ± 24.2 vs. 69.4 ± 26.1). Without adjustment for relevant confounders, BMI z-score was associated with an odds ratio of 1.32 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.55; p-value < 0.01) for the low HDL-c group compared to the high HDL-c group. With adjustment for all relevant confounders the adjusted odds ratio was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.60; p-value < 0.01).
Conclusions: Results from this study demonstrate a positive association between 5-year BMI and low HDL-c later in adolescence. These results provide evidence that BMI, as early as five years, is associated with subsequent low HDL-c in adolescence, an important CVD risk factor. This study finding supports the importance of targeting childhood obesity to help minimize future CVD risk.
Author Disclosures: A. Von Holle: None. K. North: None. A. Justice: None. E. Kang: None. E. Blanco: None. S. Gahagan: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.