Abstract P113: Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Kentucky Inmates: Effect of a Fitness Training and Health Education Intervention
Introduction: In state and federal prisons, approximately 20 percent of inmates have cardiovascular (CV) disease which is the leading cause of death in inmates. Inmates in the United States have high rates of cigarette smoking and drug abuse, lower socioeconomic and education levels, and high stress living conditions which increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a fitness training and health education intervention on cardiovascular risk reduction in inmates.
Hypothesis: there will be a significant decline in CV risk factors following the intervention in the immediate intervention group versus wait-list-control intervention group at 3 months after baseline.
Methods: The study enrolled 411 male inmates in four Kentucky state prisons. The intervention comprised 12-weeks of fitness training for 1-hour twice a week and one hour a week health education using a self-care approach. A multiple baselines design was used in which all participants received the intervention and all had a 3-month run-in period to establish their own baseline without intervention. Data were gathered from inmates at four time points: baseline, pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention and 3 months post-intervention. Outcome measures included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure (BP), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides (TGL).
Results: The mean age of participants was 37.1 years with a racial distribution similar to Kentucky state prisons (66.8% Caucasian, 30.3% African American). Inmates who participated in 80% or more of the intervention had improvements in BMI (p = < 0.001), waist circumference (p = < 0.001), systolic and diastolic BP (p = < 0.001), HDL (p = 0.002), LDL (p = 0.003), and TGL (p = 0.06).
Conclusions: In conclusion, the combination of fitness training with education on self-care management of one’s health resulted in improvements in cardiovascular disease indicators in inmates. This may lead to lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality while in prison and also upon release. After release from prison, inmates have an adjusted risk of death that is 3.5 times higher that of non-incarcerated people with heart disease being the second leading cause of death during this time period. An intervention that improves the cardiovascular health of inmates may help with chronic disease management in prison systems and may help to decrease the high mortality rates for inmates upon release.
Author Disclosures: A. Connell: None. D. Moser: None. T. Lennie: None. M. Chung: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.