Abstract P056: Emerging Lifestyle Markers Predict Regression of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Scores
Introduction: CVD remains the number one cause of mortality in the western world. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a safe & reliable predictor of future CVD risk. This study assesses which lifestyle factors best predict a change in IMT over time.
Hypothesis: We assessed the null hypothesis that all lifestyle changes are effective.
Methods: A prospective cross-sectional analysis of 289 men & women undergoing health & cardiovascular risk screening every 1-2 years at an outpatient wellness center in Florida. This study reflects the first visit at the clinic, & a second visit that occurred on average 2.8 years later. These subjects ranged in age from 23-65 (mean = 48.2). In addition to testing, subjects received nutrition, fitness, & health coaching.
Measurements were made of fitness using VO2max stress testing, diet intake using a 3-day dietary intake survey. Laboratory & anthropometric measures were obtained fasting. Mean IMT scores used high resolution B-mode ultrasonography of the common carotid arteries. Each subject had ≥10 images collected from the far wall of both distal 1 cm of the common carotid arteries at end diastole. The carotid intimal thickness was measured as a continuous variable, using both multivariate & bivariate linear regression, adjusting for age & gender; as our site IMT precision was = 3%, we selected a 4% change as significant.
Results: The average decrease in IMT score in this cohort was -0.018 mm over 2.8 years, a 2.04% reduction. The bivariate analyses showing a significant association with a ≥4% reduction in IMT in 62 of 288 subjects; they were a decrease in: Body mass index (BMI) (p=0.047), body fat (p=0.025), total cholesterol (TC) (p=0.031), LDL cholesterol (p=0.028), TC/HDL (0.002), or an increase in dietary intake of: magnesium (p=0.0001), fiber (p=0.017), vitamin D (p=0.016), vitamin K (p=0.001), potassium (p=0.001), & calcium (p=0.024). In a multivariate analysis, starting a statin medication (p=0.0007), a decrease in BMI (p=0.042), baseline IMT, male gender, diastolic BP decrease, & years of follow up were predictive of 4% IMT decline. Prior use of a statin medication was not significant.
Conclusions: In conclusion, this study shows that a reduction in IMT score over 2.8 years is associated with a decrease in: BMI, body fat, TC, LDL, TC/HDL ratio, & diastolic BP; or, an increase in intake of: magnesium, fiber, vitamins K & D, potassium, & calcium; or, starting a statin medication.
Author Disclosures: S.C. Masley: None. R. Roetzheim: None. L.V. Masley: None. T. McNamara: None. D.D. Schocken: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.