Abstract P036: Medical Advice is Associated with Taking Action to Reduce Sodium Intake, Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System 2013
Background: Excessive sodium intake is a key modifiable risk factor for hypertension and subsequent cardiovascular disease: 95% of US adults consume >2300 mg daily (Institute of Medicine tolerable upper intake level). Yet knowledge is limited regarding U.S. adult behaviors to reduce sodium intake. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and determinants of taking action to reduce sodium intake, and to test the hypothesis that receiving medical advice is associated with taking action to reduce sodium intake.
Methods: We used data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone survey representative of non-institutionalized adults aged >18 years. Twenty-six U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico participated in the new, optional sodium module. The median cooperation rate for these states and territories was 66.9%; range 51.8 – 75.9%. We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics. All analyses accounted for selection probabilities and the complex design. Analyses included 173,778 respondents with complete data.
Results: Fifty-three percent of adults reported watching or reducing sodium intake (“taking action”). The prevalence of taking action was highest among adults reporting having received doctor or other health professional advice to reduce sodium intake (82%), followed by (73%-75%) adults taking anti-hypertensive medications, with diabetes, kidney disease, or a history of cardiovascular disease, and lowest (29%) among adults aged 18-24 years. Among those taking action, 36% reported initiating the behavior within the last 3 years. Overall, 23% of adults reported receiving advice to reduce sodium intake. Receiving advice was highest (51% - 56%) among adults taking anti-hypertensive medications, with diabetes, kidney disease, or a history of cardiovascular disease, and lowest among adults aged 18-24 years (7%) or without hypertension (10%). Among adults who had hypertension, yet were untreated, only 32% received advice. Overall, receiving advice was associated with action to reduce sodium intake (adjusted PR 1.59, 95% CI 1.56-1.62). Although there was some evidence of disparities across race/ethnicity and body mass index categories, after adjusting for other sociodemographic and health characteristics, 74%-83% of adults who received advice, reported taking action.
Conclusion: Our results suggest slightly over half of U.S. adults are taking action to reduce their sodium intake, and receiving advice is strongly associated with taking action. Although data are based on self-report, the substantial proportion of respondents who do not report receiving advice from health professionals suggests a missed opportunity for reducing sodium intake among U.S. adults, particularly among high risk groups.
Author Disclosures: S.L. Jackson: None. S.C. King: None. S. Park: None. J. Fang: None. E. Odom: None. M.E. Cogswell: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.