Abstract P031: Significant Predicted Change in Usual Sodium Intake for the U.S. Population From Meeting Sodium Standards for Commercially-Packaged and Restaurant Foods: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010
Background: A 400 mg daily reduction in the average sodium intake of the U.S. population is projected to save up to 28,000 lives and $7 billion health care dollars annually. In 2010, the Institute of Medicine recommended setting standards for the sodium content of commercially-packaged and restaurant foods to reduce U.S.sodium intake given the majority of sodium intake is from these foods. We assessed this hypothesis.
Methods: We developed models using 2007-2010 data for 17,979 participants one year and older participating in two 24-hour dietary recalls, a part of the What We Eat in America component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We projected the sodium content in foods reported by survey respondents based on percent changes in sales weighted averages from baseline for specific food categories using New York City’s National Salt Reduction Initiative (NSRI) 2014 targets or Health Canada’s 2016 sodium benchmarks. To predict the changes in usual sodium intake from foods for the U.S. population aged >1 year we used analyses accounting for the complex survey design with measurement error models to adjust for within person day-to-day variation in intake.
Results: Based on a conservative estimate of the foods included in specific categories, if NSRI targets had been met in 2007-10, we estimated that the U.S. population aged >1 year could have reduced their average usual daily mean sodium intake of 3343 mg by 14%, or 484 mg (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 471 mg, 498 mg). If Health Canada’s benchmarks were met, the US population could have reduced their average usual daily sodium intake by 18% or 612 mg (95% CI, 594 mg, 630 mg). Across age, sex, and race-ethnic population subgroups, the average predicted relative reductions in sodium intake by group ranged from 13% -15% using NSRI targets and 16%-19% using Health Canada’s benchmarks. If sodium standards had been met, we estimated the proportion of adults aged 19 years and older consuming >2300 mg daily would have declined from 87% (95% CI, 84%, 89%) to 75% (95% CI, 72%, 77%) using NSRI targets or to 70% (95% CI, 68%, 73%) using Health Canada benchmarks. The proportion of adults consuming >1500 mg daily would have declined from 99% to 96%-97%.
Conclusion: Results suggest that if U.S. commercially-packaged and restaurant foods had met established sodium standards, a significant reduction in sodium intake could have occurred across age, sex, and race-ethnic groups in the U.S. population.
Author Disclosures: M. Cogswell: None. S. Patel: None. K. Yuan: None. C. Gillespie: None. W. Juan: None. C. Johnson: None. M. Vigneault: None. J. Clapp: None. P. Roach: None. A. Moshfegh: None. J. Ahuja: None. P. Pehrsson: None. R. Merrritt: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.