Abstract P012: Hypertension and Alterations in Left Ventricular Geometry in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study
Introduction: Compared with whites, African Americans (AAs) have a higher risk for hypertension-related cardiovascular disease outcomes, which may be related to alterations in left ventricular geometry. Scarce data exist on how the left ventricle remodels in response to hypertension among AAs.
Hypothesis: We hypothesized that among AAs, hypertension will be associated with abnormal echocardiographic–derived left ventricular geometric patterns defined as concentric remodeling (CR), concentric hypertrophy (CH), and eccentric hypertrophy (EH).
Methods: We analyzed data from the Jackson Heart Study, a community-based AA cohort who completed a baseline exam that included clinic blood pressure (CBP) and 2D echocardiography (n=5,301). CR, CH, EH, and normal patterns were defined according to left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness defined using standard American Society of Echocardiography recommendations. The analysis was restricted to 4,572 participants with complete CBP, information on antihypertensive medication, and echocardiographic data.
Results: Mean ± SD age was 55.5 ± 12.7 years; 64% were female. Mean ± SD systolic and diastolic CBP was 127 ± 18 and 79 ± 11 mmHg, respectively; 2,785 (61%) of participants had hypertension (CBP ≥140/90 mmHg and/or taking antihypertensive medications). The prevalence of CR, CH, and EH were 10.1%, 5.2%, and 8.2%, respectively. In a multivariable-adjusted model with a normal pattern as the referent group, hypertension was associated with a greater risk of CR, CH, and EH: odds ratio 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-2.38), 4.16 (95% CI 2.53-6.86), and 1.67 (95% CI: 1.26-2.23) respectively. Among hypertensive participants, older age was significantly associated with CR, CH, and EH after multivariable adjustment. Higher systolic CBP, current smoking and a higher number of classes of antihypertensive medications were additionally significantly associated with CH and EH. Male sex, and heavy and moderate alcohol consumption versus none were also significantly associated with CR.
Conclusions: In conclusion, abnormal left ventricular geometry was present in almost 25% of AAs. Hypertension was associated with each abnormal geometric pattern, with approximately a four-fold greater odds for CH. Future studies should examine whether abnormal left ventricular geometric patterns, particularly CH, explains the increased risk of cardiovascular disease outcomes associated with hypertension in AAs.
Author Disclosures: M. Abdalla: None. J.N. Booth: None. K.M. Diaz: None. M. Sims: None. P. Muntner: B. Research Grant; Significant; Amgen. G. Consultant/Advisory Board; Modest; Amgen. D. Shimbo: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.