Abstract MP76: The Effect of Exercise Training Modality on 30-Year Cardiovascular Mortality Risk in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes
Introduction: Current calculators to estimate risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease mortality do not include cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) or physical activity (PA) measures. This is problematic as CRF is an independent risk factor for CV mortality. To address this issue, Wickramasinghe et al. developed a calculator which includes CRF along with other traditional CV risk factors. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect of aerobic (AER), resistance (RES) or combination (COMB) exercise training on 30-year CV mortality risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Methods: The present study is an ancillary analysis of the Health Benefits of Aerobic and Resistance Training Study (HART-D). Adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (n=196) were randomized to 9 months of AER, RES, COMB exercise training or a control group (CON). Thirty-year CV mortality risk was evaluated by entering each participant’s sex, age, blood pressure, smoking status, T2D status, cholesterol, and BMI into a risk calculator developed by Wickramasinghe et al. at baseline and follow-up. CRF was quantified as the highest metabolic equivalent level (estimated from the final speed and grade using American College of Sports Medicine equations) achieved during a maximal treadmill test at baseline and follow-up. Analysis of covariance was used to evaluate change in CV risk with adjustments for age, sex and baseline CV risk.
Results: Participants in the present analysis had a mean (SD) 30-year CV risk of 30.4% (17.8). A significant reduction in 30-year CV risk was observed in the AERO (-2.9%, CI: -4.7 to -1.0) and COMB groups (-2.8%, CI: -4.5 to -1.0), but not in the RES group (0.0%, CI: -1.8 to 1.7) compared to CON (2.1%, CI: -0.1 to 4.3). In the AERO and COMB groups, change in CV risk was associated with change in fat mass (r= -0.19, p=0.04), but not change in lean mass or hemoglobin A1c (all ps>0.05).
Conclusions: The present study suggests that 9 months of aerobic exercise training or combination of resistance with aerobic exercise training resulted in a ~3% reduction in absolute 30-year CV risk (~11% relative risk), and further validates the importance of aerobic exercise in the treatment of individuals with T2D.
Author Disclosures: D. Swift: None. N.M. Johannsen: None. C.J. Lavie: None. J.D. Berry: None. C.P. Earnest: None. L.B. Dunn: None. S.N. Blair: None. T.S. Church: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.