Abstract MP17: Fruits and Vegetables Consumption and the Incidence of Hypertension in Three Prospective Cohort Studies
Introduction: Intake of fruits and vegetables lower blood pressures in short-term interventional studies. However, data on the association of long-term intake of fruits and vegetables with hypertension risk are scarce.
Hypothesis: We assessed the hypothesis that a higher long-term intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of hypertension when compared with minimal intake of fruits and vegetables.
Methods: We prospectively examined the independent association of fruit and vegetable intake with incident hypertension in three large longitudinal cohort studies of originally non-hypertensive individuals: Nurses’ Health Study I (NHS1, n=62,273, aged 38-63 years in 1984), Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS2, n=88,831, aged 27-44 years in 1991), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, n =37,414, aged 40-75 years in 1986). Information about diet (using a validated food frequency questionnaire), other risk factors and behaviors, and health status was updated biennially. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for fruit and vegetable consumption while controlling for numerous other hypertension risk factors. Random effects meta-analysis was employed to derive pooled estimates of effect.
Results: Compared with participants whose consumption was <1 serving/month, the pooled HRs among those whose intake was ≥1 serving/day were 0.80 (0.72-0.89) for total fruit, 0.91 (95% CI: 0.82-1.00) for green leafy vegetables (combination of spinach, kale and lettuce), 0.94 (0.88-1.00) for cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage and Brussel sprouts), and 0.97 (0.78-1.21) for other vegetables.
Conclusions: In conclusion, our results suggest that greater long-term intake of fruits is prospectively and independently associated with a reduced risk of developing hypertension; green leafy and cruciferous vegetables were modestly but significantly inverse associated with reduced long-term risk.
Author Disclosures: L. Borgi: B. Research Grant; Significant; AHA Fellowship grant-14POST20380070. J. Forman: None.
This research has received full or partial funding support from the American Heart Association, Founders Affiliate (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont).
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.