Abstract MP13: Types and Sources of Dietary Fatty Acids and Markers of Diabetes Risk: The NEO Study
Introduction: Insufficient and inconsistent evidence is available on the association between dietary fatty acids and the development of type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to examine associations of the intake of total fat, saturated fat (SFA), mono- and poly-unsaturated fat (MUFA, PUFA), trans fat (TFA), and their food sources (dairy, meat, plant) with markers of glucose metabolism and diabetes risk.
Hypothesis: We hypothesized that different types of fatty acids are differentially associated with markers of diabetes risk.
Methods: We analysed baseline data of 5,675 non-diabetic men and women, aged 45 to 65 years, from the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study. Habitual intake of fatty acids was measured using a 125-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before, and 30 and 150 minutes after a standardized liquid mixed meal, and HOMA-IR, HOMA-B and Disposition index were calculated. Linear regression models were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Regression coefficients were expressed as percentage difference in outcome variable.
Results: Mean (sd) habitual intakes of total fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA and TFA were 34.4 (5.8), 12.4 (2.9), 12.2 (2.4), 6.9 (1.9) and 0.6 (0.2) percent of energy (En%), respectively. As compared with 1 En% of carbohydrates, SFA was weakly associated with fasting insulin (difference per 1 En%: -1.4%; 95%CI: -2.7, -0.1) and HOMA-B (-1.5%; -2.8, -0.2). Total fat, MUFA, PUFA or TFA were not associated with any marker of diabetes risk. As compared with 1 En% of carbohydrates, each of total fat (1.8%; 0.6, 3.1), SFA (3.4%; 0.0, 6.9), MUFA (4.6%; 1.6, 7.7), PUFA (16.2%; 5.1, 28.6), and TFA (per 0.1 En%: 9.1%; 1.9, 16.8) from meat sources was adversely associated with fasting insulin, whereas fatty acids from dairy and plant sources were not. Similarly, fatty acids from meat, and not from dairy and plant sources, were adversely associated with HOMA-IR, HOMA-B and Disposition Index.
Conclusion: This cross-sectional analysis revealed that all types of fatty acid from meat were adversely associated with markers of diabetes risk, whereas fatty acids from dairy and plants were not. This suggests that types and food sources of fatty acids interact in their association with markers of diabetes risk. Such interaction may be the result of differential effects of specific fatty acids (e.g. C14:0 or C18:0); other compounds in the food matrices (e.g. heme iron or sodium); or confounding by diet or lifestyle factors. Results need to be confirmed in prospective cohorts with different dietary patterns.
Author Disclosures: A.J. Wanders: A. Employment; Significant; Unilever R&D. M. Alssema: A. Employment; Significant; Unilever R&D. E.J.P. de Koning: None. S. le Cessie: None. P.L. Zock: A. Employment; Significant; Unilever R&D. J.H. de Vries: None. F.R. Rosendaal: None. M. den Heijer: None. R. de Mutsert: B. Research Grant; Modest; Unilever R&D.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.