Abstract 27: Poor Adherence to US Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010 Population
Poor diet quality in childhood often tracks into adulthood and is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity and insulin resistance. Despite the importance of good diet quality in childhood, how the dietary habits of American children change across childhood is unknown. The USDA releases the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) every five years, which advise on the nutritional intake of 12 food components with the goal of “achieving and maintaining a healthy weight, promoting health, and preventing disease”. This study sought assess whether intake of each component of the DGA was different between 3 age groups: 4-8, 9-13 and 14-18 years of age. We employed a cross-sectional design using data from NHANES 2005-10, and included 8,390 children ages 4-18, after excluding those with insufficient data on dietary recall (n=852) or who were pregnant / lactating at the time of interview (n=38). We analyzed whether each of 12 HEI-10 components and the total (sum) score were different between the age groups, using the population ratio approach which corrects for dietary intake under reporting. Total scores ranged from 44-52 out of 100. After an FDR correction for multiple testing, the youngest children had the highest overall diet quality (Q=.002-.02) due to the significantly higher consumption of total fruit, whole fruit, dairy, and whole grains (Q=.002-.04; Figure 1). Children in the youngest age group also consumed the least sodium, refined grains, and empty calories (Q=.002-.01; Figure 1). Overall, children are failing to meet the minimum total HEI-10 score of 80 thought to associate with health. Our results suggest that US children are at increased risk for preventable diseases, and the risk increases as children age. By analyzing which food groups show declines between age groups, we provide data which will inform the development of dietary interventions targeting specific food components at given ages. If we can use these data to improve the diet quality of children we offer the hope of reducing disease risk.
Author Disclosures: A.C. Frazier-Wood: B. Research Grant; Significant; USDA. E.C. Banfield: B. Research Grant; Modest; NIH. Y. Liu: None. J.S. Davis: None. S. Chang: None.
This research has received full or partial funding support from the American Heart Association, South Central Affiliate (Arkansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma & Texas).
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.