Abstract 15: Trends in Consumption of Key Foods and Nutrients Linked to Cardiometabolic Risk Among Us Adults, 1999 to 2012
Introduction: Most prior studies of US diet trends have evaluated macronutrients (e.g., total fat), rather than the foods and other nutrients most strongly linked to cardiometabolic risk. Assessment of these trends, including heterogeneity by age, sex, race, and education, is crucial to identify challenges and opportunities to improve the diet of Americans.
Objective: To characterize trends in US dietary intakes of foods and nutrients related to cardiometabolic health.
Methods: We evaluated repeated cross-sectional diet assessments among 33,929 US adults age 20+y from 6 consecutive cycles of NHANES (1999-2012). Based on an in-person 24-hour dietary recall, we evaluated energy-adjusted intakes for vegetables, fruits, whole grains, processed meat, poultry, nuts/seeds, 100% fruit juice, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); and sodium, potassium, fiber, seafood omega-3’s, and total polyunsaturated fat, among others. Analyses were further stratified by age, sex, race, and education.
Results: Among all adults, significant increases were seen in yogurt, nuts/seeds, whole grains, dark-green vegetables, fruit, and poultry; processed meat also increased (Figure). Decreases were observed in potatoes, unprocessed red meats, milk, fruit juice, and SSBs. Energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, fiber, and polyunsaturated fat increased; potassium and seafood omega-3’s did not change (not shown). Trends were generally consistent within population subgroups, with some exceptions. The increase in nuts/seeds was strongest among the well-educated, the decrease in SSBs was strongest in adults 20-34y and the increase in yogurt consumption was limited to women.
Conclusion: Overall US dietary habits are improving, consistent with continuing declines in population blood pressure and cholesterol; although processed meat and sodium intake are increasing. Disparities in dietary intakes by race and education did not markedly change, suggesting that additional efforts be explored to reduce disparities.
Author Disclosures: C.D. Rehm: None. D. Mozaffarian: E. Honoraria; Modest; Quaker Oats, Pollock Institute, Bunge. G. Consultant/Advisory Board; Modest; Foodminds, Nutrition Impact, Amarin, Astra Zeneca, Winston and Strawn LLP, Life Sciences Research Organization, Unilever North American Scientific Advisory Board. H. Other; Modest; Royalties from UpToDate, for an online chapter on fish oil.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.