Abstract 252: Developing a Rat Model of Emergency Cardiopulmonary Bypass Resuscitation in Ventricular Fibrillation Cardiac Arrest: Pitfalls and Challenges
Background: Rodent models of ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest (CA) are useful to investigate new treatment strategies for successful resuscitation. Emergency cardiopulmonary bypass (ECPB) is a promising concept for advanced life support of prolonged VF CA. Establishing a rat model of ECPB resuscitation is associated with procedural pitfalls.
Methods: Anaesthetized male Sprague Dawley rats (350g) underwent surgical preparation. VF was induced via neonatal pacing catheter placed into the jugular cannula. Rats were resuscitated with ECPB, mechanical ventilation, defibrillation and drugs. Catheter and cannula explantation was performed if return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved. Serious adverse events were collected and analyzed.
Results: A total of 65 serious adverse events occurred in 130 experiments. Most were catheter related. Hemorrhage was a common adverse event during surgical blood vessel cannulation (12 animals). No ROSC was achieved in 7 animals due to anemia caused by blood loss during surgery. The most challenging part in establishing our ECPB model is the insertion of the jugular CPB cannula. In 23 rats lethal hemothorax occurred, due to injury of the heart or the inferior vena cava. We tested different cannulas and techniques without avoiding completely the risk of rupture. In 6 cases blood could not be drained from the venous circulation caused by occlusion or dislocation of the jugular cannula. Disconnection from the bypass oxygen flow occurred three times. During the explantation of the jugular CPB cannula after achieving ROSC, pulmonary air embolism followed by instantaneous death occurred in 12 animals. We observed in 2 animals lethal pulmonary edema.
Conclusion: Establishing an ECBP resuscitation model in rats has confronted us with considerable technical challenges. We report our procedural failures during model implementation to prevent other experimental researchers repeating these potential avoidable errors in their model. Exchange of technical and procedural resources between research groups would help minimize loss of animals.
- Extracorporeal circulation
- Cardiac arrest
- Ventricular fibrillation
- Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC)
- Advanced life support
Author Disclosures: A.M. Warenits: None. A. Schober: None. W. Weihs: None. F. Ettl: None. I.A. Magnet: None. C. Clodi: None. C. Schriefl: None. D. Grassmann: None. M. Wagner: None. F. Sterz: None. A. Janata: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.