Abstract 20227: Global Myocardial Injury as a New Criterion Independent of Infarct Size and Area-at-risk
Introduction: In acute coronary syndromes, the extent of myocardial injury can be substantially greater than the infarct zone. Existing imaging methods identify the infarct zone but do not assess “global myocardial injury” (GMI), which measures the total area of myocardium that sustained injuries including and beyond the infarct zone per se.
Hypothesis: GMI can be detected based on changes in cellular membrane organization as a surrogate marker, using Tc-99m-duramycin.
Methods: Balloon angioplasty was used for coronary occlusion in a pig model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (n = 9). Tc-99m-duramycin scans were acquired on a SPECT/CT scanner on day 1. On day 2, the infarct zone was assessed with Tc-99m-tetrofosmin. In an open-chest pig model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (n = 4) we used Evans Blue dye to facilitate the measurement of area-at-risk (AAR). Tc-99m-duramycin uptake was measured by gamma counting after tetrazolium (TTC) staining and physically dissecting the AAR, infarct zone and the noninfarcted-but-ischemically-damaged tissues. Histopathology was used to document cellular damages.
Results: Quantitatively, Tc-99m-duramycin uptake delineated an area of myocardium that included but was substantially more extensive than the infarct zone. Under the current experimental condition, this area accounted for 81.0 ± 9.6% of the AAR, whereas the infarct zone was 25.5 ± 14.0% of the AAR. This was consistent with in vivo imaging, where the size of Tc-99m-duramycin positive tissue was visually larger than the perfusion defect in the Tc-99m-tetrofosmin scan. By histopathology, the noninfarcted-but-ischemically-damaged tissues contained features associated with cellular damages, and a heterogeneous mix of viable and dead cells.
Conclusions: Tc-99m-duramycin has significant uptake in infarcted as well as noninfarcted-but-ischemically-damaged myocardium, thus reflecting global myocardial injury. The data support GMI as a new criterion independent of infarct size and AAR. The noninfarcted-but-ischemically-damaged myocardium is pathologically heterogeneous, thus a potential substrate for ventricular arrhythmias. The ability to detect such tissues may have important diagnostic and prognostic value.
Author Disclosures: S.E. Johnson: None. D.C. Lee: None. B.C. Benefield: None. T.A. Holly: None. R. Arora: None. W. Fang: None. J.J. Goldberger: None. M. Zhao: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.