Abstract 19370: Myocardial Extracellular Volume is Elevated in Human Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Introduction: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to cardiomyopathy (CM) with variable severity and age of onset. Predicting early CM would alter therapeutic approaches and improve morbidity and mortality. Extracellular volume (ECV) calculated with cardiac MRI (CMR) quantifies extracellular matrix expansion, including myocardial fibrosis, and has never been reported in human DMD. We hypothesized that subjects with DMD would have abnormal ECV and that these values would correlate with other markers of LV function.
Methods: 27 DMD subjects were prospectively studied. CMR included LVEF, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), circumferential strain (εcc), and modified Look-Locker (MOLLI) sequences to calculate ECV maps (in-house software using Matlab). ECV calculated for each segment in the short axis at mid-ventricle and compared with LVEF and εcc using linear regression. Normal values taken from unmatched cohort of healthy male adults with mean ECV of 0.25 ± 0.015 (range 0.23-0.28).
Results: Imaging was adequate to calculate ECV maps in 20 DMD subjects. Mean age in years was 14. Mean LVEF was 52% and mean global εcc was -14.6%; 11 subjects had LVEF < 55% and 6 had negative LGE. Mean ECV was 0.33 ± 0.05 (0.25-0.45); there was significant intersubject and intersegment variability (Figure 1). When compared with highest mean control ECV (0.28), only one subject had a normal ECV in every segment. In subjects with LVEF ≥ 55%, the mean ECV was 0.32 ± 0.07 (0.25-0.45). In subjects with negative LGE, the mean ECV was 0.28 ± 0.04 (0.25-0.36). The ECV of the inferolateral and anterolateral segments correlated with LVEF (p=0.025 and p<0.001) and the inferolateral ECV correlated with mean εcc (p=0.025).
Conclusions: In this cohort, 19/20 DMD subjects have elevated segmental ECV, even with normal LVEF and negative LGE. Segmental ECV correlates with both LVEF and mean εcc. ECV may be a more subtle biomarker of early myocardial disease than standard measures such as LVEF and LGE in human DMD.
Author Disclosures: J.H. Soslow: None. S.M. Damon: None. B.M. Damon: None. D.A. Parra: None. W.B. Burnette: None. D.B. Sawyer: None. C.M. Stein: None. L.W. Markham: None.
This research has received full or partial funding support from the American Heart Association.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.