Abstract 18729: Comparative Analysis of the Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Within a Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit
Background: Mechanical support to aid in restoration of circulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is increasingly common in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (CICU). We sought to both identify and quantify factors predicting the implementation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support CPR (eCPR).
Methods and Results: Events associated with CPR from July 2010 through December 2013 within our pediatric CICU were retrospectively reviewed. Of 135 arrests among 88 patients, 84% were among postsurgical patients and 98% (n=133) resulted in a return of circulation, either spontaneous (n=100, 74%) or with the assistance of mechanical support (n=33, 24%). Median age at arrest was 106 days (interquartile range [IQR] 26-207 days) and weight was 3.9 kg (IQR 3.0-6.0 kg). Median length of stay (LOS) at the time of arrest was 5 days (IQR 1-49 days). Common primary causes included low cardiac output (38%), respiratory failure (33%), and arrhythmia (15%). Univariate predictors of an eCPR arrest included smaller size (3.3 v. 4.3 kg, p=0.004), younger age (25 v. 130 days, p<0.001), shorter length of stay at time of arrest (1 v. 8.5 days, p=0.001), single ventricle physiology (30% v. 14% among biventricular physiology arrests, p=0.04), and arrests not related to respiratory failure (34% v. 5% eCPR among respiratory failure arrests, p<0.001). Unit factors not associated with an increased frequency of arrests resulting in eCPR included unit capacity, night shift, and the experience levels of both the bedside nurse and attending. Among patients with at least one arrest, median ICU LOS was 18 days (IQR 9-72 days) and overall survival to ICU discharge was 72%. Survival to ICU discharge was not significantly different with respect to use of eCPR as compared to conventional CPR (60% v. 77% respectively, p=0.11).
Conclusions: We report predictors of the need for mechanical support during cardiopulmonary resuscitation within a pediatric CICU, and demonstrate comparable post-resuscitation survival to ICU discharge among those rescued with eCPR. Further longitudinal investigation is necessary to identify potential eCPR-associated differences in morbidity and neurocognitive outcomes following a CICU arrest.
Author Disclosures: S.J. Conrad: None. M.K. Bacon: None. B.C. Hatch: None. J. Hughes: None. M.K. Terrell: None. P.0. Maynord: None. A.H. Smith: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.