Abstract 18692: Association of Sleep Medication with Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Normotensives, Prehypertensives and Hypertensives
Background: Recent studies link insomnia with increased risk of hypertension. The reasons for this association are unknown but may be related, in part, to decreased levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Additionally, sleep medication often has multiple deleterious side effects that may impact a person’s engagement in physical activity. We hypothesized that insomnia symptoms and sleep medication use were associated with reduced cardiorespiratory fitness.
Methods: Adults (n=606) enrolled in the Emory-Georgia Tech Predictive Health Institute study completed baseline demographic, clinical, depression (Beck Depression Inventory II; BDI-II), sleep (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index , PSQI) and cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption; VO2max) measures. Insomnia symptoms (sleep latency of ≥30 minutes, nighttime or early morning awakenings) and sleep medication use ≥1 times/week were derived from the PSQI. Multiple linear regression was performed to test for associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and insomnia symptoms or sleep medication use.
Results: The sample was 68% female, 25% African American, 41% normotensive, 33% prehypertensive, 26% hypertensive with a mean age of 48±11 years and mean body mass index (BMI) 27.6±6.3 kg/m2. Sleep medication use was reported in 11.9% of normotensives and was inversely associated with VO2max adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, and heart rate (β=-0.12, p=.03, adjusted R2=.36) and remained significant after further adjustment for blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, depression and smoking (β=-0.11, p=.03, adjusted R2=.41). Sleep medication use was reported in 18.4% of prehypertensives and 22.8% of hypertensives but was not significantly associated with VO2max in either group. No evidence of association between insomnia symptoms and VO2max was found.
Conclusion: Sleep medication was related to reduced cardiorespiratory fitness in normotensives. People who use sleep medication may be less physically active placing them at greater cardiovascular risk which has important clinical implications for risk reduction. This relationship is attenuated in prehypertension or hypertension and may reflect the influence of pathophysiology and other variables.
Author Disclosures: F.S. Routledge: Research Grant; Significant; NIH/NINR P30 NR014134, AHA 14CRP 18330010. R. Gary: None. A.E. Rogers: Honoraria; Modest; Speaking fee for Medical World Americas Meeting and Expo, Grant Reviews for NIH, Grant Review for PCORI. S. Paul: None. S.B. Dunbar: Research Grant; Modest; NIH. Research Grant; Significant; significant.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.