Abstract 15146: Distribution of Energy Intake throughout the day and Weight Change: A Population-based Cohort Study in Spain
Introduction: Experimental research in animals suggests that the timing of feeding may be associated with weight regulation. Moreover, the timing of the main meal predicted weight loss during a 20-week dietary intervention in obese individuals, independently from total 24-h energy intake. However, the association between the distribution of energy intake throughout the day and weight change in the general population is still uncertain.
Methods: Data were taken from a cohort of 4243 individuals aged 18 years and older, selected in 2008-2010 and followed through 2012 (median follow-up: 3.5 years). Food consumption was collected at baseline with a validated dietary history, and energy intake was estimated at 6 eating occasions: breakfast, mid-morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner, and snacking (at any other moment). For each eating occasion, sex-specific quartiles of energy intake were calculated. Weight changes between baseline and end of follow-up were estimated, and weight gain was defined as a difference of >3 kg. Analyses were performed with logistic regression, and adjusted for the main confounders including total (24h) energy intake, quality of diet, prevalent and incident chronic diseases.
Results: The percentage of 24-h energy intake in each of the 6 eating occasions throughout the day was respectively: 15.9, 5.1, 40.4, 4.6, 28.0, and 6.0%. In total, 16.5% of study participants gained > 3 kg of weight during follow-up. Compared to those whose energy intake at lunch was in the lowest quartile, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of weight gain was 0.77 (0.61-0.98) for those in the second quartile, 0.80 (0.62 to 1.03) for those in the third quartile, and 0.56 (0.42-0.75) for those in the highest quartile (p for trend: <0.001). The results were similar in analyses stratified by BMI and diet quality. No association was found between energy intake in the rest of the eating occasions and weight gain.
Conclusion: A higher energy intake at lunch (the main meal of the day in Spain) was associated with a lower risk of weight gain in the general adult population. Funding: Instituto de Salud Carlos III FIS Grant No: PI11/01379 and PI12/1166. FRAILOMIC Initiative (FP7-HEALTH-2012-Proposal No:305483-2).
Author Disclosures: P. Guallar-Castillon: None. Y. Hermenegildo: None. E. Lopez-Garcia: None. L.M. Leon-Muñoz: None. E. Garcia-Esquinas: None. R.F. Perez-Tasigchana: None. F. Rodriguez-Artalejo: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.