Abstract 13508: Obesity Phenotype and the Risk of Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes: Does Cardiorespiratory Fitness Matter?
There is conflicting evidence regarding the association between metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW) with incident hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The role of cardiorespiratory fitness on these associations has not been fully explored. We tested the hypothesis that obesity phenotypes predict incident hypertension and type 2 diabetes, but cardiorespiratory fitness modifies these associations in a prospective study of apparently healthy men. 3800 men (mean age 48±6 yrs, range 20-76 yrs) participated in two health examinations during 1998-2009. All subjects were free of hypertension and type 2 diabetes at baseline examination. MHO was defined as obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) with no more than one metabolic abnormality, and MUNW was defined as body mass index < 23 kg/m2) with two or more abnormalities. Cardiorespiratory fitness was directly measured by peak oxygen uptake during a treadmill test. Incident hypertension and type 2 diabetes were defined as blood pressure ≥140/90mmHg and as ≥6.5% of HbA1c or ≥126mg/dl of fasting glucose at second examination, respectively. During an average follow-up of 5 years (1-12 yrs), there were 371 (9.8%) men incident hypertension and 170 (4.5%) men incident type 2 diabetes. MHO and MUNW were present in 844 (22%) and 249 (6.6%) men. Compared with metabolically healthy normal weight men, MHO and MUNW men were at increased risk for hypertension (relative risk (RR) =1.82, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.29-2.56 and 1.75, 1.11-2.74) and type 2 diabetes (RR=3.68, 1.92-7.07 and 5.35, 2.61-10.94), respectively. These risks in MHO and MUNW men were still persisted with adjustment for confounder variables and cardiorespiratory fitness (hypertension=1.57, 1.05-2.34 and 1.59, 1.01-2.51; type 2 diabetes=3.35, 1.63-6.89 and 4.76, 2.32-9.77). Metabolically healthy obese or metabolically unhealthy normal weight men were at increased risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes compared with metabolically healthy normal weight men. However, these associations were not attenuated by cardiorespiratory fitness or other confounder factors.
Author Disclosures: S. Jae: None. M. Carnethon: None. W. Park: None. B. Fernhall: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.