Abstract P413: Chocolate Consumption is Associated with a Lower Risk of Heart Failure in Lean US Male Physicians
Background: Previous studies have suggested that dark chocolate consumption may lower blood pressure, a major risk factor for heart failure. However, limited and inconsistent data are available on the association of chocolate consumption with the incidence rate of heart failure.
Objective: To test the hypothesis that chocolate consumption is associated with a lower risk of heart failure.
Methods: We prospectively studied 20,278 men from the Physicians’ Health Study. Chocolate consumption was assessed between 1999 and 2002 via a food frequency questionnaire and heart failure was ascertained through annual follow-up questionnaires with validation in a subsample. We used Cox regression to estimate multivariable adjusted relative risk of heart failure.
Results: During a median follow-up of 9.3 years, there were 876 new cases of heart failure. The mean age at baseline was 66.4 ± 9.2 years. Median chocolate consumption was 1-3 times per month. Hazard ratios (95% CI) for heart failure were 1.0 (ref), 0.87 (0.73-1.04), 0.80 (0.66-0.98), and 0.87 (0.72-1.04), for chocolate consumption of less than 1/month, 1-3/month, 1/week, and 2+/week, respectively, after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, and history of atrial fibrillation. In a secondary analysis, chocolate consumption was inversely associated with risk of heart failure in men whose BMI was <25 kg/m2 but not in those with BMI of 25+ kg/m2 (Figure 1), p for interaction=0.0895.
Conclusions: Our data suggest that moderate consumption of chocolate might be associated with a lower risk of heart failure, especially in lean individuals.
Author Disclosures: A.B. Petrone: None. J. Gaziano: None. L. Djousse: H. Other; Modest; Dr. Djousse received travel reimbursement to an international scientific meeting from The Hershey Company and the International Nut & Dried Fruit over the past years.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.