Abstract P335: The Number of Coronary Arteries with Calcified Plaque is Increased in Type 1 Diabetes
Adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than non-diabetic (non-DM) adults. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a marker for subclinical atherosclerosis and the Agatston CAC score is the standard used today. The aim of our study was to look at the number of coronary arteries with calcified plaques to determine if more diffuse disease is present in adults with T1D for a given level of CAC. In addition, we examined risk factors associated with the number of coronary arteries with CAC, as this could be a novel way to risk-stratify individuals.
This study consisted of 1169 participants (T1D n=535 and non-DM n =634) with a mean ± SD age of 39±9 years. CAC was measured by electron beam CT (EBCT) using two scans performed five minutes apart and the maximum number of coronary arteries with CAC was used in the analysis. CAC lesions were determined in the left main, left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary arteries, with a maximum number of arteries with CAC ranging from zero to four. Chi square analysis was used to compare the number of coronary arteries with CAC by diabetes group. Subjects were then divided into categories based on their CAC score (>0-10, 10-100, >100-300, >300) and poisson regression was used in multivariable analysis to examine associated risk factors.
Adults with T1D had a significantly higher number of coronary arteries with CAC lesions than the non-DM adults (p > 0.0001). Among subjects with CAC>300 (n=58), adults with T1D had more coronary arteries with CAC than the controls (p = 0.03), but there were no differences in number of arteries with CAC among the other Agatston score categories. In multivariable analysis, HDL and LDL cholesterol, BMI, and hypertension were all independently associated with the number of coronary arteries with CAC lesions when adjusting for age, diabetes and CAC score (p<0.0001). There were no significant associations of number of arteries with CAC with smoking status or hemoglobin A1c. People with T1D were still significantly more likely to have more coronary arteries with CAC lesions than non-DM individuals after adjusting for the above factors.
In conclusion, T1D patients have more diffuse subclinical atherosclerosis, as indicated by a greater number of coronary arteries with CAC compared with non-DM adults. The number of coronary arteries with calcified plaque was independently associated with traditional CVD risk factors, even when accounting for CAC score. These findings are important because traditionally just the Agatston CAC score is used to determine CVD risk, but the number of coronary arteries affected could indicate how diffuse the subclinical artherosclerosis is prompt for aggressive treatment of traditional risk factors.
Author Disclosures: L.M. Duca: None. G.L. Kinney: None. A.C. Alman: None. J.K. Snell-Bergeon: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.