Abstract P173: Dietary Patterns And Their Association With Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors In Mexican Origin Adults Living In The U.s. Mexico Border
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death for Hispanics in the U.S. Hispanics are disproportionally affected by CVD and experience risk factors at higher rates than non-Hispanic whites. Moreover, the prevalence of obesity has increased for Hispanics in the last decades. Although CVD are among the most expensive and widespread health problems, they are among the most preventable. Evidence shows that diet plays an important role in the development of CVD; population-wide dietary changes are partially responsible for the increasing epidemic of chronic diseases and the consumption of a healthier dietary pattern can help prevent and control CVD morbidity and mortality.
The H.E.A.R.T. (Health Education Awareness Research Team) study was an 8-year NIH funded project that implemented risk-reduction strategies to improve heart health in Hispanics living in the U.S.-Mexico border. Baseline data from the H.E.A.R.T. study was used to evaluate dietary patterns among participants in the intervention and learn how to best utilize these patterns as potential risk or preventive factors in addressing CVD among Hispanics.
Objective: The primary aim of this study was to characterize the dietary patterns of Hispanics, of Mexican origin, and assess their associations with CVD risk factors. We hypothesized that the consumption of an unhealthier dietary pattern would be associated with higher prevalence of risk factors when compared to a healthier pattern.
Results: Baseline data included 605 Hispanics living in the U.S. -Mexico border. The average age was 44 ± 12.9 years. The majority of the sample was female (84.5%), almost two-thirds were born in Mexico and more than 50% were obese. Factor analysis identified five dietary patterns; two major patterns were labeled Western and Prudent; three minor patterns were labeled Mexican, Juice, and Sweets. The Western pattern was predominantly consumed by younger adults, males, and adults born in the U. S. The Prudent pattern was predominantly consumed by older adults, females, and adults born in Mexico. The Western pattern was positively and significantly associated with waist circumference (WC) only, but not BMI, blood pressure, or CVD risk index. The Prudent pattern was negatively and significantly associated with reduced CVD risk Index, as measured by an 11 item questionnaire.
Conclusions: This study identified different dietary patterns among Hispanics. Two patterns were similar to those found previously in different populations. In addition, we identified that a healthy pattern, with high intake of fruit, vegetables, fish and poultry is associated with lower CVD risk index in a high risk population. Although the Western pattern was only associated with WC but not other CVD risk factor, overweight and obesity was present in 85% of participants indicating a strong need for strategies to reduce obesity and CVD risk factors in this population.
Author Disclosures: X. Burgos: None. J. Tomaka: None. H.G. Balcazar: None. M. Duarte-Gardea: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.