Abstract P107: Are Sleep Disturbances Associated with the Development of Gestational Diabetes? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Introduction and objectives: Physiological and hormonal changes occurring in pregnancy increase the risk of sleep disordered breathing (SDB), which, along with short sleep (SS) duration, may be associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Exposure to GDM in the mother increases her lifetime risk of type-2 diabetes (T2D) as well as the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and, in later life, T2D of her children. The aim of this study was to systematically review the collective published evidence of associations between snoring/sleep-disordered breathing or sleep duration and increased risk of GDM.
Hypothesis: We assessed the hypotheses that sleep disturbances, and/or short sleep during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of GDM.
Materials and Methods: We performed systematic searches using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library and PsycINFO to assess the effect of snoring/sleep disordered breathing (SDB) or short sleep (SS) on the development of gestational diabetes (GDM) and impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Prospective studies with measures of sleep disturbances at baseline and outcome measures of GDM or levels of glucose 1hr post GCT were included in a meta-analysis. We extracted odds ratios (OR) or relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and pooled them using a random effect model.
Results: Overall, 7 studies met the inclusion criteria. They included 4,292 participants with 311 cases of GDM. In the pooled analysis, snoring/SDB and SS were both associated with a greater risk of GDM (RR: 2·27; 95% CI 1·65 to 3·12; P < 0· 00001) and (3·19 [1·56 to 6·54]; P < 0·002), respectively. There was no evidence of heterogeneity but there was evidence of publication bias and not all studies adjusted for obesity. Sensitivity analyses did not influence the pooled risk estimates.
Conclusions: In conclusion, sleep disturbances may represent a risk factor for the development of GDM. Further studies are required to address the issues of publication bias and potential confounding, and to extend these observations to high-risk groups like women of ethnic minority groups whose risk of GDM is the greatest. Prevention, detection and treatment strategies need to be explored.
Author Disclosures: M.A. Miller: None. P. Saravanan: None. M. Vatish: None. F.P. Cappuccio: H. Other; Modest; FPC holds the Cephalon Chair, an endowed post at Warwick Medical School. The appointment was made independently of the company and the postholder is free to devise his own programme of research..
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.