Abstract P066: Consumption of a Greater Variety of Healthful Foods is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and its Components in U.S. Adults
Introduction: Consuming a wider variety of nutrient-dense foods may promote adherence to more healthful dietary patterns and enhance metabolic health by improving dietary quality. To examine these associations, we developed the U.S. Healthy Food Diversity (HFD) index to measure dietary variety alongside dietary quality and proportionality.
Hypothesis: We assessed the hypothesis that greater diversity within healthful foods would be protective against metabolic syndrome and its components.
Methods: A representative sample of non-pregnant, non-lactating adults ages 20+y with two 24-hour recalls and complete fasting biochemical data from the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were selected (n=3,089). Associations between the U.S. HFD, metabolic syndrome, and its components were assessed across U.S. HFD tertiles. The U.S. HFD was generated from dietary recall data and the MyPyramid Equivalent database using a previously validated equation. The index ranges from 0 to nearly 1, with higher scores indicative of more varied diets with a higher proportion healthful food groups. Metabolic syndrome was defined using both the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria based on biochemical parameters, anthropometrics, and self-reported medication. Fasting weights were used to analyze biochemical data and 2-day dietary weights were used in the remaining analyses. Survey-weighted multivariable linear and logistic regression adjusted for demographic factors, smoking, energy, screen time, and leisure activity were used to compute beta coefficients, odds ratios(OR) and 95% confidence intervals(CI).
Results: The odds of metabolic syndrome were lowered by nearly 40% in men and women using both the IDF (OR:0.65; 95%CI:0.51-0.83) and ATP III criteria (OR:0.63; 95%CI:0.49-0.80) after multivariable adjustment. Compared to the first tertile, adults in tertile 3 had a lower age- and sex-adjusted odds of impaired fasting glucose (OR:0.79; 95%CI:0.65-0.95) and hypertension (OR:0.81; 95%CI:0.68-0.96). In all models, the odds of reduced HDL and abdominal obesity were 22-33% lower in the highest vs. lowest tertile (p-trend<0.05). Fasting glucose (age- and sex-adjusted), blood pressure, and waist circumference were also lowered across U.S. HFD tertiles following multivariable adjustment in continuous linear regression models.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the odds of metabolic syndrome defined using IDF and ATP III criteria were lower across U.S. HFD tertiles and some metabolic parameters improved with greater consumption of a variety of healthful foods. This study provides preliminary evidence that diversity within healthful foods may be protective against metabolic syndrome and highlights the need for future research using longitudinal and experimental study designs.
Author Disclosures: M. Vadiveloo: None. N. Parekh: None. J. Mattei: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.