Abstract MP76: The Impact of Low Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables on Mortality from Cardiovascular Diseases in 187 Countries
Background: Consumption of fruits and of vegetables each influence CVD risk. Yet, the global CVD mortality attributable to low intakes of each, by country, age, and sex, are not established.
Objectives: To quantify the burdens of CVD attributable to low fruit consumption and low vegetable consumption by age and sex in 187 countries in 2010.
Methods: We characterized consumption of fruits and vegetables by age, sex, and country based on 204 national and subnational surveys from 109 countries representing 85.2% of the world’s adult population complemented by bayesian hierarchical imputation for missing data. Etiologic effects of fruit and vegetable intake on CHD and stroke were quantified based on meta-analyses of prospective observational studies, supported by effects on CVD risk factors in intervention studies. Cause-specific mortality rates were obtained from the 2010 Global Burden of Diseases Study. CHD and stroke mortality attributable to low intakes of fruits [<300g/d] and vegetables (including legumes) [<400g/d] were estimated using comparative risk assessment, by country, age, and sex.
Results: In 2010, 2,814,850 CVD deaths [95%UI: 2,652,230-2,977,471] were attributable to low fruit intake [36% CHD, 17% ischemic stroke, 47% hemorrhagic and other nonischemic stroke] and 1,922,582 CVD deaths [1,839,270-2,005,894] were attributable to low vegetable intake [42% CHD, 21% ischemic stroke, 37% hemorrhagic other nonischemic stroke]. Burdens were similar by sex: 55% and 54% of these deaths, respectively, occurred in men. Nearly 1 in 2 CVD deaths attributable to fruits and 2 in 5 attributable to vegetables occurred prematurely, before age 70 y. Substantial heterogeneity was evident across nations (Figure).
Conclusions: These results highlight the substantial burdens as well as disparities in CVD attributable to insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables around the world, informing prevention strategies and priorities.
Author Disclosures: S. Khatibzadeh: None. A. Afshin: None. R. Micha: None. P. Shi: None. M. Yawar Yakoob: None. G. Singh: None. M. Rao: None. S. Fahimi: None. M. Ezzati: None. D. Mozaffarian: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.