Abstract MP52: Increased Intake of Non-Dairy Sugars in Foods and Beverages is Positively Associated with Annual Increases in Waist Circumference among Overweight and Obese Adolescent Females
Introduction: Waist circumference (WC) is an important measure of adiposity that predicts cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents. Previous studies have shown a positive association between sugar-sweetened beverages and WC in adolescents but it is unknown if this effect differs when sugars are consumed in foods vs. beverages.
Hypothesis: Increased sugar consumption from both foods and beverages is associated with increased WC.
Methods: NHLBI’s Growth and Health Study was a 10-year cohort study of Caucasian (n=1,166) and African-American (n=1,213) girls aged 9 and 10 at baseline who were recruited from three sites in the US in 1987 and 1988. Minimum WC was measured annually except at baseline. Diet was assessed using a three-day food record in eight of ten years; nutrient content was determined using the Nutrient Data System for Research. Girls were grouped by weight status (normal vs. overweight or obese). One-year changes in WC and in consumption of liquid and solid non-dairy sugars were calculated by subtracting each year’s measure from its value for the subsequent year. A linear mixed model was used to accommodate multiple observations per individual. After modeling change in sugar consumption as quintiles, a linear trend was observed and further modeling was conducted using continuous change in sugars consumption. Model I adjusted for race, age, puberty stage, initial WC, initial BMI, change in height, dieting status, initial and change in physical activity, initial and change in % energy from fat and % energy from carbohydrates, and initial consumption of sugars. Model II additionally adjusted for initial and change in total energy.
Results: Among normal weight girls using Model I, significant increases in WC were observed with each additional teaspoon of liquid, 0.19mm (0.05, 0.33) (p=0.006), but not solid sugars 0.11mm (-0.02, 0.24) (p=0.11). These increases were no longer significant after adjusting for total energy in Model II. Among overweight and obese girls in Model I, increases in WC were observed with each additional teaspoon of solid sugars, 0.42 mm (0.22, 0.62) (p<0.0001) and liquid sugars, 0.26 mm (0.09, 0.44) (p=0.004). This association was slightly attenuated but still significant after controlling for total energy with WC increases of 0.31 mm (0.10, 0.52) (p=0.005) with each teaspoon of solid sugars and 0.19 mm (0.005, 0.37) (p=0.049) with each teaspoon of liquid sugars.
Conclusions: Increases in non-dairy sugars from both foods and beverage were associated with increased WC among overweight and obese adolescents, both before and after adjusting for total energy intake.
Author Disclosures: A. Lee: None. R. Chowdhury: None. J. Welsh: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.