Abstract MP36: Associations of Chronic Individual- and Neighborhood-Level Stressors with Incident Coronary Heart Disease (CHD): The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)
Background: Several individual-level measures of stress have been linked to incident CHD in prospective studies, but less attention has focused on the influence of neighborhood-level stressors. We assessed prospective associations of individual- and neighborhood-level stressors with incident CHD.
Methods: MESA participants were aged 45-84 years at baseline (2000-2002). Analyses were conducted separately for those with complete data on individual- (n=6678) and neighborhood-level stressors (n=6105). Missing values on covariates were imputed with multiple imputation. Baseline individual-level sources of stress were assessed using the chronic burden scale, a measure of the presence and perceived stressfulness of ongoing health, job, relationship, and financial problems lasting over 6 months. Survey-based neighborhood safety (3 items) and neighborhood social cohesion (5 items) were examined as neighborhood-level sources of chronic stress. Each participant’s neighborhood safety and neighborhood social cohesion scores were constructed using Empirical Bayes estimation techniques that incorporated the responses of other MESA participants and a sample of non-participants living within a mile of that participant. Scores for each individual- and neighborhood-level stress measures were categorized into approximate tertiles (low, medium, and high) for analyses. CHD was defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or CHD death. Median follow-up time was 8.5 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate associations of high chronic burden, low neighborhood cohesion, and low neighborhood safety with incident CHD after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics as well as behavioral and biological risk factors.
Results: Participants in the high chronic burden category had 55% higher risk of incident CHD (hazard ratio (HR): 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 2.15) than those in the low category after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, gender, education, income, marital status and field center. Findings attenuated slightly but remained significant with further adjustment for hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, physical activity, current smoking, and current alcohol use (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.00). Neither low (vs. high) neighborhood cohesion (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.74, 2.06) nor low (vs. high) neighborhood safety (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.84) was associated with CHD in sociodemographic-adjusted models.
Conclusions: Individual-level sources of stress were more strongly associated with incident CHD than neighborhood-level stressors.
Author Disclosures: K.N. Kershaw: None. A.V. Diez Roux: None. A. Bertoni: None. M.R. Carnethon: None. S.A. Everson-Rose: None. K. Liu: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.