Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Pulmonary Valve Replacement After Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot and Potential Prognostic Value of Preoperative Cardiopulmonary Exercise TestingClinical Perspective
Background—Indications for surgical pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) after repair of tetralogy of Fallot have recently been broadened to include asymptomatic patients.
Methods and Results—The outcomes of PVR in adults after repair of tetralogy of Fallot at a single tertiary center were retrospectively studied. Preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing was included. Mortality was the primary outcome measure. In total, 221 PVRs were performed in 220 patients (130 male patients; median age, 32 years; range, 16–64 years). Homografts were used in 117 patients, xenografts in 103 patients, and a mechanical valve in 1 patient. Early (30-day) mortality was 2%. Overall survival was 97% at 1 year, 96% at 3 years, and 92% at 10 years. Survival after PVR in the later era (2005–2010; n=156) was significantly better compared with survival in the earlier era (1993–2004; n=65; 99% versus 94% at 1 year and 98% versus 92% at 3 years, respectively; P=0.019). Earlier era patients were more symptomatic preoperatively (P=0.036) with a lower preoperative peak oxygen consumption (peak o2; P<0.001). Freedom from redo surgical or transcatheter PVR was 98% at 5 years and 96% at 10 years for the whole cohort. Peak o2, E/CO2 slope (ratio of minute ventilation to carbon dioxide production), and heart rate reserve during cardiopulmonary exercise testing predicted risk of early mortality when analyzed with logistic regression analysis; peak o2 emerged as the strongest predictor on multivariable analysis (odds ratio, 0.65 per 1 mL·kg−1·min−1; P=0.041).
Conclusions—PVR after repair of tetralogy of Fallot has a low and improving mortality, with a low need for reintervention. Preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing predicts surgical outcome and should therefore be included in the routine assessment of these patients.
- Received February 1, 2013.
- Accepted October 1, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.