Abstract 208: Emergency Medical Service Resuscitative Interventions in North-Central West Virginia Trauma Activation Criteria Patients: A Ten Year Experience
Introduction: West Virginia (WV) is the second most rural state, with 51.3% of the population living in a rural area and 97.3% of the land area considered rural by the US Census Bureau. West Virginia University (WVU) MedCom provides medical command for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in 26 north-eastern WV counties. EMS transport times often exceed 20 minutes in rural counties. However, little is known about the specific provider capabilities and interventions that occur in the rural pre-hospital setting.
Methods: This was a retrospective, observational review of EMS interventions for “trauma activation criteria patients” (based on CDC Field Triage Guidelines) in the WVU MedCom database. Trauma activation criteria EMS encounters from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2011 were analyzed for EMS provider capability, receiving hospital capability, and pre-hospital resuscitative interventions.
Results: There were 11,853 patients available for analysis in the time period. Basic Life Support (BLS) providers provided 21.0% of the care. The distribution of receiving Trauma Centers was as follows: 83.2% Level I, 4.7% Level II, 3.9% Level III, 5.0% Level IV; 3.2% were taken to a facility without trauma center designation. Airway intervention occurred in 7.5% of patients; 2.3% had endotracheal tube (ETT) placement (0.88% had failed ETT placement), 0.34% had King/Combi-tube placement, and 4.0% had positive pressure ventilation with bag valve mask. Vascular access was attempted in 78.7% of the patients; 73.0% had vascular access established (72.9% by IV and 0.08% by intra-osseous access) and 5.1% had an IV fluid bolus administered. CPR was performed on 1.0% of the patients and needle thoracostomy was performed on 0.32% of the patients. Discussion: In rural north-central WV, BLS responders provided the pre-hospital care to 1 in 5 patients. Although treatment at a Level I Trauma Center has been shown to decrease patient mortality by 25%, only 83.2% of trauma patients in rural north-central WV were initially treated at a Level I Trauma Center. Pre-hospital airway intervention was needed in 7.5% of patients. Vascular access was established in only 73.0%; 5.1% received a fluid bolus. Additional studies will be needed to assess the impact of these treatments on patient outcomes.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.