Abstract 18315: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention versus Conservative Therapy for Acute Management of Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection
Objective: To evaluate outcomes of acute spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) managed with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or conservative therapy.
Background: SCAD is a non-atherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome that typically affects young otherwise healthy females. Whether SCAD with normal vessel flow at presentation should be managed with PCI or conservative therapy remains unknown.
Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients after a first SCAD episode (n=142). We excluded those treated with fibrinolysis (n=12) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, n=8). We evaluated in-hospital and late outcomes in three SCAD groups: Vessel occlusion at presentation treated with PCI (Occ-PCI, n=30); normal vessel flow treated with PCI (NF-PCI, n=34) and those managed conservatively (CON, n=58).
Results: Overall mean age was 42+9 years, 91% were female and 41% presented with STEMI. Outcomes are shown in the table below. In Occ-PCI, technical failure occurred in 8/30 (27%), of whom 5 required emergency CABG with one in-hospital death. Comparing NF-PCI with CON, there were no differences in clinical characteristics. Technical failure occurred in 16/34 (47%) of NF-PCI due to failure to cross with wire/device (8/34) or final loss of flow (8/34). Emergency CABG was required in 5 (15%). In CON, 54/58 had an uneventful in-hospital course. Four (7%) exhibited early dissection progression of whom two received PCI and one CABG. Long-term rates of target vessel revascularization, but not recurrent SCAD, were higher in NF-PCI vs CON (26% vs 9%, p=0.02; 24% vs 14%, p=0.23).
Conclusions: PCI for acute SCAD is associated with high rates of technical failure and adverse clinical outcomes. In SCAD with normal vessel flow, conservative management may be preferable, with close early observation due to a hazard of progression of dissection. These findings underscore the importance of tailoring therapy to etiology of coronary obstruction.
- Acute coronary syndromes
- Percutaneous coronary intervention
- Interventional cardiology
- Sudden cardiac death
- Coronary vessels
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.