Abstract 13398: Effects of Aerobic Training on Arterial Stiffness in Overweight Minority Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Background: Childhood obesity has tripled in prevalence in the past 30 years. Obese children are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease in adulthood.
Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of 8 mo of a daily after school aerobic exercise program (average heart rate (HR) = 161±8 bpm, 58% attendance) vs. a sedentary program in overweight or obese children (8-11 yrs, 72% obese, 88% Black, 60% female). Intent-to-treat mixed models tested effects on arterial stiffness (carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity, PWV), % body fat (DXA), V02 peak, fasting lipids, glucose and insulin levels, measured at baseline and study completion in 146 children. Exercise adherence was defined as average HR x attendance %.
Results: Compared to boys, girls had higher fatness, lower fitness and comparable PWV at baseline. PWV correlated with % body fat and inversely with fitness at program entry. At study completion, the exercise group showed reduced body fat and improved VO2 compared to the control group (adjusted mean difference in change from baseline to completion in exercise vs. controls, -1.0% in body fat, and +1.4 ml/kg/min in V02, respectively, both p=.04). There were no other group effects. Independent of systolic blood pressure change, the change in PWV correlated with changes in % body fat (Figure) and BMI (both r=.25, p < .01), and insulin (r=.26, p=.02). Trends (p=.06) of PWV change vs. VO2 change (r=-.17) and exercise adherence (r=-.23) were observed.
Conclusions: 8 mo of supervised aerobic training in overweight and obese, mostly minority children resulted in improved fitness and reduced fat, with no overall effect on PWV. Nonetheless, improvements in PWV were related to reductions in fatness, insulin levels and better exercise adherence. Overweight youth can benefit from a structured exercise program. Addition of a dietary intervention might enhance the amount of weight loss and further improve arterial stiffness.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.