Abstract 13008: No Effect of the Type of Sugar on Changes in Traditional Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease when Consumed at Typical Levels
The American Heart Association recommends that women and men should not consume more than 100 or 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. As the most common sources of added sugar, sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) have been singled out for particular concern. However, the majority of the cited studies have compared glucose to fructose with effects often extrapolated to commonly consumed sugars. Few data exist on the effects of the most commonly used sugars when consumption is at typical population levels.
268 individuals aged 20-60 years old were required to drink sugar sweetened, low fat milk every day for 10 weeks as part of their usual diet. All participants had been at a stable weight (± 3%) for 30 days prior to enrollment and were given recommendations on how to account for calories in the milk, but were given no further dietary guidance. The amount of milk consumed was individualized for each participant based on the estimated number of calories required to maintain body weight (via Miflin St Joer equation ) and random group assignment: Groups 1 and 2 - 9% estimated caloric intake from fructose or glucose respectively added to milk. Groups 3 and 4 - 18% of estimated caloric intake from HFCS or sucrose respectively added to the milk (50th percentile population consumption levels of fructose).
There was a small change (p≤0.001) in body mass (162.2 ± 27.8 vs 164.2 ± 28.1lbs) and BMI (26.3 ± 3.3 vs 26.6 ± 3.4) in the entire cohort, as well as in total cholesterol (177.4 ± 39.4 vs 180.1 ± 40.0mg/dl, p≤0.05), but both systolic (109.2 ± 10.2 vs 106.1 ± 10.4 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (69.8 ± 8.7 vs 68.1 ± 9.7mmHg) decreased (p≤0.01). There were no changes in HDL (52.5 ± 12.8 vs 52.4mg/dl ±12.9), LDL (104.3 ± 34.2 vs 105.4 ± 34.6mg/dl) or glucose (90.0 ± 6.5 vs 90.7 ± 7.9mg/dl, all p>0.05). The type of sugar consumed had no effect on the response of any measure (interaction p>0.05).
These data suggest that when consumed as part of normal diet at typical levels the effects of commonly consumed sugars on traditional cardiovascular risk factors are small and mixed. More importantly, the often cited negative effects of fructose compared to glucose do not seem to be applicable to the commonly consumed sugars (HFCS and sucrose) when consumed at typical population consumption levels.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.